51st Annual Meeting of the Canadian Archaeological Association: 2018 Winnipeg, Manitoba May 2–6, 2018

2018 Conference Sessions and Abstracts

Thursday, May 3, 2018

A Call to Action: Gauging Canadian Archaeology’s Response to the Coastal Erosion Crisis

Time: 
09:10 AM to 03:10 PM
Room: 
Somerset

Session Details

The inundation and erosion of shorelines due to sea level rise and climate change have been characterized as a global archaeological crisis. With the longest coastline in the world, Canada sits at the apex of this dilemma. For the Indigenous Nations of Canada, this destruction represents a heritage catastrophe appalling in its scope – and one difficult to address within current funding paradigms and initiatives. The loss of an archaeological past has dire implications for Indigenous peoples seeking to assert their culture, heritage, history, and rights. A full-day session of papers will reveal a snapshot of the scope of the erosion catastrophe, and Canada’s current response to it. The following morning will be devoted to a workshop aimed at answering the following questions: What is the nature of the challenge we are facing? Is the current level of response adequate? What strategies have proved successful? Is a national program needed to address the crisis? How should Indigenous perspectives, aims, and personnel be integrated into the management and execution of the program? How might a national strategy co-exist with current academic, provincial, territorial, and Indigenous initiatives?
Organizer(s): 
  • Matthew W. Betts, Canadian Museum of History

Presentations

09:10 AM: Coastal Erosion and Archaeology Sites in Nova Scotia – Insights from Over Fifty Years of Evaluation
Author(s):
  • Catherine Cottreau-Robins - Nova Scotia Museum
Coastal Erosion and Archaeology Sites in Nova Scotia – Insights from Over Fifty Years of Evaluation Nova Scotia has a coastline that stretches 7500 kilometers. Nowhere in the province is more than a 30- minute drive from the ocean. Needless-to-say, Nova Scotia’s social, cultural, ecological and economic values are intrinsically linked to the sea. The changing state of the coast and specifically the problem of coastal erosion, has been part of community and management conversations for decades. Over the years, archaeologists have witnessed the impacts of coastal erosion to a range of coastal heritage assets. Many have contributed to the dialogue, with varied results. This paper examines the issue of coastal erosion and archaeology sites in Nova Scotia and the historical development of initiatives to address the crisis.  Starting with a multi-year assessment project in the 1970s and the extensive work among archaeologists in the Maritime Peninsula region, the paper will review the ebb and flow of activity since that time, and the resurgence of focus with the devastation of Hurricane Juan, the emergency situations since then, and the rising intensity of the issue resulting in new collaborations and current legislative development.
09:30 AM: The COASTAL Archaeology Project: A Shared Authority Partnership to Address the Coastal Erosion Crisis on Nova Scotia’s South Shore
Author(s):
  • Matthew Betts - Canadian Museum of History
  • M. Gabe Hrynick - University of New Brunswick
  • Catherine Cottreau-Robins - Nova Scotia Museum
  • Jeff Purdy - Acadia First Nation
  • Heather MacLeod-Leslie - Kwilmu’kw Maw-klusuaqn Negotiations Office
The coastal erosion crisis isn’t just an archaeological disaster; for Indigenous peoples it has significant political and cultural impacts. In Canada, recent Supreme Court of Canada decisions weigh archaeological resources as key evidence of routine and historical use of land and resources in rights-based negotiations. As a result, the loss of Indigenous archaeological sites has significant implications for Indigenous people. This creates further impetus for archaeologists engaged in coastal erosion research to formulate responsive, engaged, and collaborative research methodologies. This paper outlines a new shared authority archaeological project on Nova Scotia’s South Shore. COASTAL (Community Observation, Assessment, and Salvage of Threatened Archaeological Legacy) is conducted in partnership with Acadia First Nation, Nova Scotia’s Department of Communities, Culture and Heritage, Kwilmu’kw Maw-klusuaqn Negotiations Office (also known as Mi’kmaq Rights Initiative), and the University of New Brunswick. The project seeks to engage and empower Mi’kmaw partners in the preservation of their threatened archaeological heritage. Our paper outlines preliminary results from our recent fieldwork and details our survey, mapping, and erosion vulnerability assessment protocols. However, the paper focuses on our collaborative approach to the management of the project, which we believe may provide a new model for community-based erosion archaeology.
09:50 AM: Second Wind: How the Mi’kmaq of Nova Scotia are meeting the forces of nature
Author(s):
  • Heather MacLeod-Leslie
  • Kaitlin MacLean
Coastal Erosion is an important issue that affects the Mi’kmaw Nation in Nova Scotia; Mi’kmaw communities, ancestors, archaeology and potentially implementation of rights and title are under threat.  The Kwilmu’kw Maw-klusuaqn Negotiation Office (KMKNO), with an Assembly-defined mandate for the protection of archaeological and sacred sites (including burials), has been involved in community-driven coastal erosion research, crisis response, and development of new approaches for a decade with partners ranging from government bureaucracies to industry and academic researchers.  This paper will explore how the Mi’kmaq of Nova Scotia have been affected and identify the recent relationship with climate change through archaeological resources and cultural heritage.   We will outline some of our experiences in Nova Scotia as archaeologists working on behalf of the Mi’kmaq of Nova Scotia and will discuss challenges faced, lessons learned, and some priorities for the Mi’kmaw Nation moving forward in Nova Scotia – a province whose border is almost completely coastline, save for less than 25 kilometres…and that may disappear beneath the rising sea soon.
10:30 AM: Rising tides and shrinking shorelines: Coastal change and archaeological sites on PEI
Author(s):
  • Erin  Mundy - Aboriginal Affairs Secretariat, Government of PEI
  • Helen Kristmanson - Aboriginal Affairs Secretariat, Government of PEI
Coastal erosion and rising sea levels are major concerns for Prince Edward Island (PEI) whose shoreline is eroding an average of 28 cm per year. Both are especially threatening to archaeological sites in PEI, as a high proportion of sites are located along the coast or near watercourses. In response to the growing effects of climate change, the PEI Provincial Archaeology Office initiated a shoreline study in 2016. The goal of this study was to identify and document areas of high vulnerability and archaeological potential. Using coastal change data (from 1968 – 2010) and elevation data, staff members identified archaeological sites that are vulnerable to coastal erosion and sea level rise. Sixty-one (61) archaeological sites were identified to have low elevation and medium risk erosion (located 0-2 m above sea level and 0.2 – 0.8 m/year erosion), and 32 sites were identified to have low elevation and high risk erosion (0-2 m ASL and > 0.8 m/year erosion). Over the past two years, staff members have attempted to visit thirty-six (36) of these vulnerable sites. This presentation will discuss the benefits and challenges of this project and outline future work.
10:50 AM: Coastal Erosion, Climate Change and Archaeology in Newfoundland and Labrador
Author(s):
  • Jamie Brake - Nunatsiavut Government
  • Lisa  Rankin - Memorial University
Like other political jurisdictions, Newfoundland and Labrador is grappling with the consequences of climate change which are not only threatening, but actively impacting significant archaeological resources.  In Newfoundland, attempts have already been made to delay the ongoing effects of coastal erosion on heritage resources located on geologically submerging shorelines, but climate change is affecting the entire province; accelerating shoreline subsidence, and exposing new regions to coastal erosion and storm surge.  Other climate change-related impacts, such as melting permafrost, are harder to detect and are potentially more worrisome since we do not yet have an understanding of how serious these problems currently are in our region.  In this paper we discuss both coastal erosion and climate change-related threats to archaeological resources in Newfoundland and Labrador; describe the impact of climate change on the Indigenous archaeological record which is most at risk; outline what has been done to address this threat to date; and explore the opportunities to address this challenge as we move forward. We suggest that a multi-regulatory framework, inclusive of the Indigenous communities, is essential to adequately address this overwhelming crisis.
11:10 AM: Assessing impacts of contemporary climate change on the preservation of the archaeological record of the Dog Island region, Labrador
Author(s):
  • James Woollett - Université Laval, Centré d'études nordiques
  • Najat Bhiry - Université Laval, Centré d'études nordiques
  • Susan Kaplan - Peary-MacMillan Arctic Museum and Arctic Studies Center, Bowdoin College
  • Heloïse Barbel - Université Laval, Centré d'études nordiques
  • Natasha  Roy - Université France-Comté, Centre d'études nordiques
Coastal north-central Labrador is of specific archaeological importance for the preservation of its sites and cultural landscapes representing multiple cultural traditions and about 5000 years of occupation.  Diverse factors such as isostatic rebound, the distribution of coastal tundra, cold and damp climatic conditions and the development of permafrost have fostered exceptional preservation conditions for whole sites and for organic remains.  Current climate change processes impinge on these conditions, however, and the lack of diachronic studies of contemporary site taphonomy hinders our capacity to adequately assess the nature, scale and speed of their impacts.   Long-term research projects focused on specific sites and regions can provide a means to grapple with the problem. This presentation reviews site taphonomy data compiled since 2000 by archaeological field projects in the Dog Island region of north-central Labrador.  Survey, excavation and soil coring records, paleoenvironmental surveys and photographic documentation are used to identify current threats to archaeological sites and landscapes.  Sea level rise and its attendant processes of coastal erosion comprise one measureable risk factor.  This study suggests that more subtle and ultimately more dangerous factors may include the loss of permafrost patches associated with peat and anthropogenic soils, the subsequent erosion of the soil column and the forestation and shrubbification of peat and tundra environments where well-preserved sites are currently found.  A proposed programme of remote sensing, site assessment and instrumentation and mapping provides a set of tools for monitoring and measuring the scale of these threats in the region, in the immediate future.
11:30 AM: The Past is Washing and Melting Away: Developing Strategies for Saving the Arctic's Cultural Heritage and Environmental History
Author(s):
  • Susan A Kaplan - Arctic Museum, Bowdoin College
In 2016 archaeologists visited Avayalik-1, in far northern Labrador, TMNP, to assess the stability of this important Middle and Late Dorset site. Cultural deposits found frozen in 1978 have thawed, prehistoric structures along the edges of the Avayalik-1 terrace and an adjacent cove are in various stages of collapse. Thawed deposits are tumbling down inclines, leaving trails of cultural debris. A small test pit in House-1 revealed that while deposits there are no longer frozen, recovery of important organics is still possible. Faunal remains were recovered, along with knotted baleen, spun cordage, deteriorated wood, and soils rich in botanical and insect remains. Avayalik-1 and other prehistoric sites on neighboring islands and the mainland are important to understanding the region's prehistory and the ecology of the North Atlantic before the advent of commercial whaling. The processes compromising Avayalik-1 are endangering other sites in northern Labrador and throughout the Arctic. Given that we cannot save every site, what criteria should we use to identify the known sites that should get our attention, and the regions needing intensive survey and identification of endangered cultural heritage resources? Can we collectively enlist the help of geologists in modeling locations of the most endangered sites and frozen deposits? Can we convince funding agencies to support excavations of priority sites, as well as the conservation and storage that will be required? Are there lessons we can learn from other archaeological communities about how to proceed?
11:50 AM: Archaeological Survey and Salvage Dig on the Qulliapik Site (JlGu-3), Pujjunaq (Mansel Island, Nunavut): an example of site erosion in Nunavik’s coastal region.
Author(s):
  • Elsa Cencig - Avataq Cultural Institute
  • Tommy Weetaluktuk - Avataq Cultural Institute
  • Susan Lofthouse - Avataq Cultural Institute
Coastal erosion is a critical threat to the archaeological record as formerly perma-frozen ground is melting across the Arctic. In Canada’s Low Arctic, perma-frozen ground is already lower in the substrate, so as this melts faster through climate warming, the archaeological matrix is increasingly exposed to potential erosion. In Nunavik, as in much of the Canadian Arctic, most of the archaeological heritage is found along the coast. Sites found along gravel beach ridges and sandy bluffs appear to be particularly vulnerable to this erosion. Our most recent research project, Pujjunaq: Archaeology and History Project, is an example to shed some light on this problematic. Pujjunaq is a large island located in northeastern Hudson Bay, near Akulivik and Ivujivik. In collaboration with the northern village of Akulivik, this project involves archaeological survey, excavation, toponymy and oral history, in order to document the extent of human occupancy of the island, from Pre-Dorset to Inuit times. An extensive archaeological survey in 2014 identified a number of sites under threat by erosion, and in 2017 a salvage excavation of the endangered Qulliapik (JlGu-3) site took place. The site is composed of both Dorset and Thule Inuit houses, with the Dorset presence particularly under threat. Excavations revealed excellent preservation of organic artifacts from the Late Dorset period. The survey recorded a total of 110 sites concentrated along the coastline and successively occupied for over 3800 years, indicating a rich history of human occupation on Pujjunaq that needs quick action in order to be preserved.
01:30 PM: Climate Change and the Coastal Erosion Crisis in the Northwest Territories
Author(s):
  • Glen MacKay - Culture and Heritage Division, Government of the Northwest Territories
  • Naomi Smethurst - Culture and Heritage Division, Government of the Northwest Territories
Archaeological sites on the Beaufort Sea Coast in the Western Canadian Arctic are under significant threat from coastal erosion, and are likely to become increasingly vulnerable as the rapid pace of climate change in Canada’s North continues (or accelerates). Our paper will provide an overview of the coastal erosion crisis in the this region, highlighting some of the key factors – many climate-driven – that contribute to the erosion of archaeological sites, such as sea level rise, thawing of ice-rich permafrost, lengthening of the sea ice-free season, and others. We will also outline what we stand to lose from the archaeological record if the erosion of archaeological sites proceeds unchecked. Management planning for the coastal erosion crisis is in its earliest stages in the Northwest Territories and is constrained by significant knowledge gaps, including a full picture of the distribution of archaeological sites in the region and how areas of greatest archaeological significance intersect with areas of highest coastal erosion – key factors for prioritizing limited resources. In preparation for the afternoon workshop, we will offer some ideas on what will be required to mount an effective response to the coastal erosion crisis in the Northwest Territories.
01:50 PM: Managing Loss: Grounded Visualization and the Assessment of Cultural Landscape Erosion Risk in the Canadian Arctic.
Author(s):
  • Michael O'Rourke - University of Toronto
Cultural landscapes are an effective means of conceptualizing the heritage character of the lived landscape, an approach which has been applied in heritage management programmes around the world. A central aspect of cultural landscape management efforts is their particular attention to the broad typology of values which may be ascribed to places of cultural importance. This presentation addresses the results of a cultural landscape vulnerability model developed for the Kugmallit Bay area of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Northwest Territories, Canada. The model has been developed to mobilize notions of value and risk in the determination of threatened places of cultural importance by employing the GIS-facilitated method of ‘grounded visualization’. It is argued here that grounded visualization methods provide a robust approach to cultural landscape management given their capacity to address qualitative and quantitative accounts of risk and value from a range of sources in a non-hierarchical, flexible and iterative fashion.
02:10 PM: Climate Change and Heritage Resources at Herschel Island, Yukon
Author(s):
  • Ty Heffner - Yukon Government
  • P.Gregory Hare - Yukon Government
  • Christian Thomas - Yukon Government
Herschel Island (Qikiqtaruk) has a unique and complex history of human settlement and use, with sites related to Inuvialuit, Fur Traders, Whalers, Missionaries and the North West Mounted Police. The majority of these sites are situated near the shoreline and are being actively transformed by coastal erosion and other environmental changes. This paper provides an overview of Qikiqtaruk heritage sites, with examples of ongoing environmental impacts, past mitigation attempts, and current challenges.
02:30 PM: Responding to the Coastal Erosion Crisis and the Changing Archaeological Landscape of Ivvavik National Park
Author(s):
  • Ashley Piskor - Parks Canada, Western Arctic Field Unit
  • Anna Irrgang - Arctic Coastal Dynamics, PhD Student, Research Unit Potsdam
This paper discusses the effects of coastal erosion on archaeological sites in Ivvavik National Park and the current response to it. Ivvavik, located along the Yukon North Slope within the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, is rich in archaeological material that provides evidence of early human migration into the Canadian Arctic and the development of Inuvialuit culture. Ivvavik’s coastline is being significantly impacted by coastal erosion. Numerous sites have already eroded and many of the remaining are threatened or are at imminent risk of eroding. Research indicates that by 2100, more than 50% of the documented archaeological sites along Arctic coasts will likely be eroded. Throughout the Park co-management planning process, Inuvialuit Stakeholders identified 12 culturally significant coastal sites emphasizing their need for continued protection. In response, Parks Canada’s Western Arctic Field Unit (WAFU) implemented a coastal monitoring program to monitor the extent and impact of erosion on these archaeological sites and continues to work closely with its Indigenous partners to document traditional and local knowledge, and the archaeology, of these sites before they are eroded. Recently, WAFU has partnered with coastal erosion experts at the Alfred Wegener Institute to better understand erosion rates and future shoreline projections to more effectively inform mitigation decisions. It is our hope that through continued partnership with Indigenous stakeholders and by introducing specialized scientific research and advanced technologies, our team will be better equipped to strategically respond to the rapidly changing landscape and to the loss of archaeological sites along the coast in culturally appropriate ways. 
02:50 PM: Coastal Erosion Monitoring at Gulf Islands National Park Reserve
Author(s):
  • Laura  Peterson - Gulf Islands National Park Reserve
  • Bill  Perry - Parks Canada
The lands and waters of the southern Gulf Islands are deeply rooted to the Coast Salish cultural landscape.  Many places and features like shoreline shell middens bear witness to this cultural and spiritual relationship.  While stretching back millennia, they are also being impacted on a daily basis with fluctuating tides, currents, waves, boat wake and storm surges, and enhanced by sea level rise.  This paper considers the importance of applying a “how to” approach to understanding the rate of erosion to selected midden sites.  The condition of at-risk coastal archaeological sites were monitored by: working in partnership with the Hul’q’umi’num and WSANEC speaking peoples; use of a technique that is simple and replicable between recorders who may have little formal archaeological training; and by applying the protocol in two national parks with an overseeing archaeologist. This paper will present the lessons learned and offer a case study for other Parks Canada coastal heritage places.

Collaborations and Corroborations in CRM

Time: 
09:10 AM to 11:30 AM
Room: 
Ambassador G

Session Details

Any successful person will say that they couldn’t have done it without the help of a few friends. Consulting archaeology is no different; we often find ourselves collaborating with people from First Nations, and/or other companies, disciplines, and industries, as well as applying new technologies that are not as regularly used in archaeology. This can result in better results and/or improved relations, making what we do that much greater. This session will bring together recent collaborations in CRM, showing how working together can help provide further evidence (corroborations) to those answers that we seek.
Organizer(s): 
  • Margarita J. de Guzman, M.A., Circle CRM Group Inc.

Presentations

09:10 AM: Recent technological advancements for the systematic sampling of wet sites in New Brunswick
Author(s):
  • Chelsea Colwell-Pasch - Colbr Consulting Inc.
  • Brent D. Suttie - Archaeological Services Branch, Government of New Brunswick
  • Vanessa P, Sullivan - Colbr Consulting Inc.
  • Tricia Jarratt - Archaeological Services Branch, Government of New Brunswick
Traditionally, comprehensive sub-surface testing strategies for archaeological impact assessments in New Brunswick’s coastal and interior wetlands have encountered both methodological and logistical barriers. These barriers contribute to a lack of archaeological data in an important ecozones typically found within, or on the periphery, of areas deemed to have a high archaeological sensitivity per predictive modelling. In New Brunswick, recent innovations in mechanical testing strategies have produced the first successful commercial systematic sub-surface testing project in a wetland that has been slatted for infrastructure development. This paper will discuss mechanical testing at wet sites, addressing the traditional issues of systematic sampling, the methodological benefits and limitations of mechanical testing, and the data collected from mechanical wet site sampling. In addition, the paper will address the potential impact of introducing routine wet site testing into the scope of future archaeological work within the Province.
09:30 AM: Boots on the Ground – The use of geotechnical studies to inform cultural resource management work in Edmonton, Alberta
Author(s):
  • Gareth Spicer - Turtle Island CRM
This presentation is a follow up to my 2017 contribution to the urban archaeology session in Gatineau.  Cultural resource concerns in relation to development projects in Alberta’s urban areas are often difficult to establish.  The absence of concern is founded upon the assumption that intact sediment in which cultural deposits are preserved will not be present due to modern development.  This condition persists despite an extensive body of work to the contrary.As a solution to this problem, Turtle Island CRM has collaborated with geotechnical contractors on several infrastructure development Projects in Edmonton, Alberta.  Geotechnical analysis includes the collection of sediment samples from locations throughout a development footprint.  Inspection of these samples has proven an effective method to determine the location of previously disturbed and intact sediments beneath contemporary over burden.  By leveraging geotechnical studies, Turtle Island CRM has established the location of potentially intact and cultural bearing sediments impacted by development projects in Edmonton.  In turn, this has justified and given credibility to cultural resource field assessments in association to these projects.In the 2018 presentation I will illustrate this approach through the discussion of multiple infrastructure Projects carried out on behave of the City of Edmonton where geotechnical samples were utilized to inform recommendations for cultural resource work.  I will discuss the sites recorded as a result of this collaboration and their implications to cultural resource work in Edmonton.
09:50 AM: Water Level Management on the Rainy River and Indirect Impacts to Archaeological Sites
Author(s):
  • Carla Parslow - Golder
Preliminary archaeological research was conducted in 2015 and 2016 for the International Joint Committee to study the impact of existing water level management strategies to prevent floods (Rule Curves, 2000) at the Fort Francis / International Falls Dam on archaeological sites along the Rainy River.The study had three main tasks: collecting data on known archaeological sites on the U.S. and Canadian parts of the river; integrating the data with the results of the hydrologic and hydraulic analyses of the river; and determining and documenting how previous and current water level management conditions affect the archaeological sites on the river.The results of the study show that water levels prescribed by current water level management strategies do not directly impact the sites, and that there is no measurable differences in the pre-dam levels, management strategies implemented in 1970 or the current strategies on potential impacts to archaeological sites. Despite these results, there is observed erosion and, consequently, cultural vulnerability of some archaeological sites. This erosion is the result of several factors that, while not being directly associated with the Fort Francis / International Falls Dam and water level management strategies, can be indirectly influenced by them. For example, prescribed water level management strategies to control flooding can prevent build-up of sediment deposits, leading to erosion.
10:30 AM: Collaborations in CRM from a Mi’kmaw perspective
Author(s):
  • Kaitlin MacLean - Kwilmu’kw Maw-klusuaqn Negotiation Office (KMKNO)
Collaborations with Cultural Resource Management firms and proponents are an essential part of honorable and meaningful consultation and engagement. Our work at the Kwilmu’kw Maw-klusuaqn Negotiation Office (KMKNO) Archaeology Research Division (ARD) includes research, repackaging of traditional information to protect the property rights of traditional knowledge keepers, site visits, field work, community liaison work and collaborative research design. The ARD has been given the mandate to protect archaeological resources, burials and sacred sites by the Assembly of Nova Scotia Mi’kmaq Chiefs. This paper presents and discusses some of these activities in important engagement work which offers a host of opportunities and challenges to be addressed from a Mi’kmaw perspective.
10:50 AM: "Lodges of Time and Space" -- the Stone Cairns of Red Wing
Author(s):
  • Michael Bergervoet - University of Kansas / Minnesota Dept. of Transportation
The stone cairns of Red Wing, Minnesota, USA, have been cloaked in mystery for centuries. Small in number, densely concentrated and originally built upon high, untimbered hilltops, the identity of the builders remains unknown to both researchers and Native people alike. Local Dakota people do not claim authorship but refer to these monuments as “hekti”, a “lodge of time and space”, and recognize them as places “where holy works were done.” Unfortunately all of the stone cairns have been dismantled since Euro-Americans first encountered them and the significance of their hollow architecture was never culturally examined. After collecting/generating both quantitative and qualitative information and through the aid of Native consultants, it is contended the stone cairns of Red Wing were constructed by the Spring Creek Oneota between AD 1300 – 1400. Furthermore, the stone cairns are principal components of a larger ritual landscape and quite possibly demarcate a physical and spiritual sanctuary during a period of significant environmental and/or social change across the continent. From an ethnographic perspective the stone cairns of Red Wing function as sacred altars/conduits between the Above and Below worlds. This assertion is based upon Siouan interpretations of their profile, placement, architecture, and spiritual significance of materials used in their construction. Altogether, these results suggest the stone cairns of Red Wing stand as witness to the cultural crescendo of the Oneota tradition in this locality and/or they are an initial expression of Ioway ethnicity and tribalism in southeastern Minnesota.
11:10 AM: Reciprocal Benefits: Excavating alongside the Cree in Hardisty, AB
Author(s):
  • Rob Wondrasek - Atlatl Archaeology
  • Rachel Lindemann - Atlatl Archaeology
From 2013 to 2015, Atlatl Archaeology conducted year round excavations at several sites which are part of a larger, multi-component aggregation site within the Battle River valley outside of Hardisy, AB. As the project was within traditional Cree territory, the four Cree Bands from Maskwacis, AB (Samson Cree Nation, Ermineskin Cree Nation, Louis Bull Tribe, and Montana First Nation) each provided representatives who participated in the excavations. Elders from the four bands were consulted prior to the start of excavations and they made bimonthly field visits to the site to help interpret our findings. The site produced a number of features that were rare or unique for Alberta, including a large animal burrow backfilled with over 1,117 faunal remains including 9 bison skulls, portions of three canids, 77 lithics (including 9 tools), and a large portion of a pottery vessel. A small habitation structure measuring 2.5 m long and 1.5 m wide was also identified. Lastly, a number of unique projectile points recovered from an occupation located two meters below surface which had O.S.L. dates of 7,800 B.P. Input from First Nation excavators and Elders resulted in a much more detailed interpretation of these finds, and the overall area, than would have been possible without their input and participation.

Unsettling Archaeology

Time: 
09:10 AM to 04:50 PM
Room: 
Ambassador H

Session Details

This session frames "unsettling" archaeology in the broadest possible sense. It is, in part, about rethinking archaeological practice to move it away from the colonial history of our discipline and make it more inclusive. It is also about shaking up our traditional approaches and interpretations, highlighting "activist" archaeological research that promotes social change, and identifying areas where archaeological practice and knowledge construction continue to marginalize some elements of the population. We invite contributions that highlight archaeological research that challenges accepted methods and understandings, aims to correct stereotypes (past and/or present), or promotes social change in the present. We also welcome analyses and personal narratives that illustrate how certain individuals or groups are marginalized within the discipline, thereby highlighting the need for change.
Organizer(s): 
  • Laura Kelvin, Memorial University
  • Lisa Hodgetts, University of Western Ontario

Presentations

09:10 AM: Community-Sourced Archaeology and Relinquishing the Inception of Research
Author(s):
  • Josh Dent - Sustainable Archaeology/Timmins Martelle Heritage Consultants Inc.
Is archaeology of service beyond archaeologists? Applying a symbolic capital/condition framework, this paper details the emerging Research Portal initiative. Part of a Mitacs Elevate Postdoctoral Fellowship developed in conjunction with Sustainable Archaeology: Western and Timmins Martelle Heritage Consultants Inc., the Research Portal (www.insituated.com/research-portal) is a web-based platform capable of soliciting and communicating community-sourced research to potential academic partners. Designed to augment local capacities, foster relationships and achieve socially meaningful and disseminated academic outcomes, the Portal inverts conventional community-based research conception. Non-academic organizations outline research objectives to which academic partners adapt or design research. Originally conceived of as a means to assist commercial archaeologists in promoting additional research related to commercial projects, the Portal's pilot implementation quickly expanded to include other heritage communities, including First Nations, not-for-profits and a municipal government. Demand for the inclusion of additional research sectors outside of heritage suggest that this archaeology-based initiative may have wider implications. This paper explores the costs and benefits, and the presumptions and promise, of a more service-oriented and community-driven academic mandate.
09:30 AM: The work of Archaeology in the Age of Bureaucratic Reproduction – Cultural resource work and the regulatory environment in Alberta
Author(s):
  • Gareth Spicer
The majority of cultural resource work carried in Alberta is undertaken by private consultants triggered by development within a regulatory environment facilitated through the authority of a public bureaucracy.  As a result, cultural resource management work and the engagement with the results of this work by practitioners, academics and the general public is mediated and controlled through this authority.This presentation will discuss the practice of cultural resource management work in Alberta as it has been defined through the regulatory authority of a public bureaucracy.  I will outline the concept of bureaucracy and public management and discuss its contemporary expression in cultural resource work in Alberta will be discussed.  The influence of a public bureaucracy upon cultural resource work will be illustrated through assessments derived from specific case studies.  Through a comparative analysis between expected and practical outcomes, I will present limitations to cultural resource work resulting from the current regulatory context in Alberta.As a result of this discussion and in reference to the case studies presented, I will propose that the employment of a rational bureaucratic management structure utilizing general rules will produce predictable and beneficial cultural resource management outcomes.  Outcomes which are predictable, beneficial and free from exceptions will act as incentives to both practitioners and proponents to proactively engage in the regulatory environment without advocacy for or enthusiasm in any specific interest.
09:50 AM: The Back-Up Plan: Flexible Research Design and Field Work in a Relocated Community
Author(s):
  • Michelle Davies - Nunatsiavut Government/ Memorial University
The former community of Hebron (1831-1959) is a difficult subject for many on the Labrador coast. Home to over 60 families, the unilateral decision to close the store and Moravian mission station blindsided its’ residents, who were forced to resettle in communities further south. Decades after this abrupt move, people from Hebron and their descendants still feel the traumatic effects of relocation.  Documenting oral histories about life at Hebron before they are lost was identified as a priority for Labrador Inuit, and prompted the initiation of the multi-year Hebron Family Archaeology Project. As part of my Ph.D. research, I have followed the expressed interest of Hebron relocatees through an archaeological lens in order to provide an opportunity for families to return to Hebron while attempting to increase our knowledge of 20th-century life in the community. However, the processes of community engagement and research design, ethics reviews, and informed consent may not always prepare participants for the experience of returning to the community and engaging in emotionally sensitive research. Preparing different potential avenues for research, in both design and methodology, has allowed for flexibility when faced with the profound legacy of relocation as participants return to their homeland, and choose what (and what not) to share during field work.
10:30 AM: Looking East – Using oral traditions and archaeometry to investigate Huron-Wendat history
Author(s):
  • Alicia Hawkins - Laurentian University
  • Louis Lesage - Huron-Wendat Nation
  • Amy St. John - Western University
  • Greg Braun - University of Toronto
  • Joseph Petrus - Laurentian University
  • Kathryn Labelle - University of Saskatchewan
  • Melanie Vincent - Huron-Wendat Nation
  • Allison Bain - Laval University
While Huron-Wendat teachings indicate a close relationship with eastern lands, such as in the Quebec City region, archaeological tradition has only recently begun to consider this possibility. Our research project was initiated by Nation members and developed as a partnership between the Bureau Nionwentsïo of the Huron-Wendat Nation and archaeological and historical researchers. We investigate this relationship using analysis of oral traditions and archaeology. In an effort to undertake a sustainable archaeological practice, we analyse pottery from across southern Ontario and Quebec from pre-existing collections. We employ micro CT analysis, petrography, and laser ablation ICP-MS to compare pottery from across this region to ask if the potters belonged broadly to the same community of practice. Our research process and results are being shared throughout the project using community media and social media, and through meetings and workshops at Wendake. Data created will reside at the Nation and all project members have the opportunity to participate in presentations and publications about the project. Using this approach, one of our goals is to assist with restoring Wendat voices to the telling of Wendat history.
10:50 AM: Unsettling Huron-Wendat Archaeology
Author(s):
  • Gary Warrick - Wilfrid Laurier University
  • Bonnie Glencross - Wilfrid Laurier University
  • Alicia Hawkins - Laurentian University
  • Louis Lesage - Bureau du Nionwentsïo, Conseil de la Nation Huronne-Wendat
The Huron-Wendat are one of the best known Indigenous peoples in Canada. While the Huron-Wendat have an intense interest in the results of archaeological investigation of their past, they are very concerned about repatriation of ancestors and the long-term protection of archaeological sites and burials and artifacts languishing on museum shelves. Digging less and extracting the maximum information from existing archaeological collections is becoming the preferred way of doing Huron-Wendat archaeology. Despite colonial legislation governing archaeology and land ownership, the destruction of sites through land development, and political challenges from both settlers and other Indigenous nations preventing the Huron-Wendat from controlling their archaeological heritage, archaeologists can ensure that Huron-Wendat archaeology is conducted in accordance with Huron-Wendat values and wishes. This paper will present a number of alternative approaches to practicing Huron-Wendat archaeology (e.g., sustainable field archaeology [e.g., metal detection and remote sensing; sampling]; use of existing collections - private and public; dogs as proxies for human isotope studies) and other ways that archaeologists can move in the direction of enabling Huron-Wendat control and ownership of their archaeological heritage (e.g., collaborative research with Huron-Wendat; site inventory surveys; lobbying governments to protect significant sites;  and artifact repositories in Ontario and Québec).
11:10 AM: Unsettling the Archaeology Field School
Author(s):
  • Farid Rahemtulla - University of Northern British Columbia
Archaeology field schools are integral to the post-secondary training regime for students, and they are amenable to “unsettling” the way in which archaeological training and research is conducted in partnership with Indigenous communities. Since 2000 the UNBC archaeology field school has partnered with eight different indigenous communities and organizations throughout the interior and coast of British Columbia.  In this unique set up community members enrol in the field school for full credit alongside university students, regardless of educational background.  Where possible Elders and other community members co-teach the field school through sharing of knowledge, stories, and songs. The entire training and research program including classes, mapping, and fieldwork, takes place within the host community, either on Reserve or nearby.  University students are immersed within the culture and landscapes of the host community, and community members participate in university-level training in archaeology and heritage within their home territory. One goal of the program is to encourage dialogue and thought about restructuring (unsettling) the way in which archaeological research and training is conducted in these areas. This is a continually developing model with no blueprint, but one that is borne out of necessity. Successes and problems are highlighted.
11:30 AM: Contributing to Social Justice through Inuvialuit Living History
Author(s):
  • Lisa Hodgetts - University of Western Ontario
  • Natasha Lyons - Ursus Heritage Consulting
  • Beverly Amos
  • Charles Arnold
  • Ethel-Jean Gruben
  • Kate Hennessy
  • Mervin Joe
  • Sarah Carr-Locke
  • Agnes Kuptana
  • Marie Jacobson
Inuvialuit Pitqusiit Inuuniarutait, the Inuvialuit Living History project, is a longstanding partnership between Inuvialuit Elders and knowledge holders, Inuvialuktun language experts, archaeologists, anthropologists, digital media specialists and museum professionals. The project aims to improve access for Inuvialuit to their heritage objects in southern museums and to share Inuvialuit and archaeological knowledge about Inuvialuit heritage and contemporary life through the project website (www.inuvialuitlivinghistory.ca), launched in 2012. At a recent workshop to kick off a second phase of the project, our team identified a number of social challenges facing Inuvialuit youth in trying to succeed in the Tan’ngit (Euro-Canadian) education system while sustaining strong cultural identities. Together, we outlined a number of project directions that seek to support and strengthen Inuvialuktun language instruction, intergenerational knowledge transfer, and culturally appropriate curriculum development. These activities will be tied into a re-visioning of the website as an Inuvialuit-centred resource that both reflects and fosters Inuvialuit pride in their history, culture and ties to the land. By creating opportunities in both real time and the digital realm for Inuvialuit Elders and youth to share knowledge and culture, we situate our project in opposition to the colonial legacy faced by Indigenous communities in the course of their daily and working lives and contribute to the reconciliation efforts between Indigenous communities and the Canadian mainstream.
11:50 AM: Creating a Space where the Present Intersects with the Past and Future: Working with Youth in Hopedale Nunatsiavut
Author(s):
  • Laura Kelvin - Memorial University
The Inuit Community Government of Hopedale, Nunatsiavut, initiated the Avertok Archaeology Project (AAP) through the Tradition and Transition: Piusitukaujuit Asianguvalliajuillu research partnership between Memorial University and the Nunatsiavut Government to generate tourism activity and support local interest in the history of Hopedale. The Hopedale community articulated that they need community involvement in the AAP, preferably in ways that facilitate knowledge exchange between Elders and youth. The project had its inaugural field season in Hopedale, Labrador in 2017, during which we hired three local youth to catalogue artifacts, work on excavations, and conduct traditional knowledge interviews. This presentation discusses my experiences working with Nunatsiavutmiut youth as part of the AAP and how it has shaped my plans for future field seasons. I am working to develop a strength-based approach for working with youth that encompasses education, employment, and healing. This requires developing a safe space for youth to learn, share their knowledge and skills, and build their confidence. By fostering existing interest in their past and ancestors through the development of approaches to learning and working that appeal to youth, we can help empower them and create projects that have lasting effects that align with community goals.
01:30 PM: When It’s Not About You: Heirs and “Experts” in the Study of non-Eurocentric Pasts
Author(s):
  • Heather MacLeod-Leslie - Kwilmu'kw Maw-klusuaqn Negotiations Office
The past two decades of researching the archaeological heritage of Atlantic Canada’s African Diaspora peoples and working for the Mi’kmaq Nation in Nova Scotia has yielded some critical teachings for the author as a professional archaeologist. Indeed, as a white archaeologist, these experiences have taught lessons at least as important as those learned in the university classroom. This paper will share thoughts on some of those lessons about academic propriety, standpoint theoretical framing, sharing power and acknowledging and coping with the legacies of Eurocentric biases in archaeological interpretations. It is the intention that this paper offers a model for correction of these legacies to other archaeologists, whether their work is conducted for the academy or industry. Pushing beyond community-collaborations, this paper hopes to check the negative, if unintended impacts, of intellectualism and the shadow cast by the profile of expertise across the landscape of modern archaeological investigation. Specifically, the way forward to improved and more accurate understanding of the past is a key goal of any such corrections, as is the stronger commitment to a more ethical way of researching it.
01:50 PM: Categorizations of Identity in Settler Colonial Contexts: Unsettling Métis as Mixed in the Archaeological Record
Author(s):
  • Kisha Supernant - Department of Anthropology, University of Alberta
Unsettling archaeology requires that we examine the ways we categorize, divide, and characterize the material record and understand the relationships between our analytical frameworks and settler colonialism. The Métis people of Canada have often been categorized as a mixed, hybrid ethnic group, based largely on racialized understandings of the early encounters between Indigenous women and European men. Métis scholars have begun to critique the racial basis for "Métis-as-mixed" and shift toward ways of identifying the Métis based on peoplehood and nationhood. In this paper, I discuss how settler colonial categories of hybridity have influenced past archaeological research on the Métis in Canada and explore how archaeological analysis of Métis sites based on a Métis ontology that centers kinship, mobility, and nationhood can unsettle colonial characterizations of identity. Using examples from my research, I present a framework to conceptualize the rise of a new people through the archaeological record that does not rely on logics of mixedness, but rather considers the spatial and material patterns as representative of an emergent Métis worldview. 
02:10 PM: Reframing Archaeology and Indigenous Heritage
Author(s):
  • Kevin Brownlee - Manitoba Museum
As an Indigenous person, learning about my Cree history and heritage is very important to me. Knowledge of the past is what grounds us by helping to shape the perceptions of ourselves and how we relate to the world. My desire to know more about my heritage is what drew me into the field of archaeology in the first place where it provides a view into the past. I have been fortunate to have worked my entire career with diverse Indigenous communities. I owe a great deal to them because their perspectives on archaeology and heritage have helped shape my Indigenous identity. My attitude has changed over the years and I have become more aware of how archaeology can impact the lives of youth from our community. The Western Education System's tendency to divide Indigenous heritage into the disciplines of archaeology, anthropology, and history has been a point of frustration for me. The way I practice archaeology is with a priority on Indigenous heritage, not restricting myself to the material items excavated from the ground. The way I view and interpret ceramics now is dramatically different from how I was initially trained. The insight shared by community members offers a more complete view in what archaeologists are trying to understand from the past. After all, Indigenous heritage extends into time immemorial, persists until today and is what guides people into the future. Any attempt to divide this past, serves only to weaken what it means to be Indigenous.   
02:30 PM: Do My Braids Look Different? Indigenous Identity in Archaeology.
Author(s):
  • Danielle Desmarais - University of Toronto
This paper is a narrative of the challenges I’ve experienced as a White passing Indigenous scholar.  It will include a discussion of my conscious decision to conceal my Indigenous heritage during my undergraduate education due to subtle and overt forms of marginalization.  I will also examine the role of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and some community engagement experiences that inspired me to proudly divulge my Indigenous identity during my graduate career.   Through my personal narrative, I will outline some of the issues that exist for Indigenous peoples studying in a colonial setting and how I engage with my culture, and the Indigenous teachings I have received, to cope with these challenges.  It is my hope that my Truth will allow fellow colleagues to reflect on their own experiences of marginalization, complacency and/or culpability so that we can work together and move forward with Reconciliation in a good way.
02:50 PM: Guns, Ponies, and Biases: How Archaeological Knowledge is Constructed
Author(s):
  • Elsa Perry - Atlatl Archaeology, University of Lethbridge
  • Rachel Lindemann - Atlatl Archaeology
The first North West Mounted Police Post at Fort Macleod is a Provincial Historic site located in southern Alberta near the current town of Fort Macleod, approximately 60 kilometres west of the city of Lethbridge. Excavations at the old town site completed by Atlatl Archaeology Ltd in fall/winter 2016 and summer 2017, uncovered a total of 33,905 artifacts ranging from domestic household goods, faunal material to transportation goods, and structural materials. Along with these materials, we encountered ‘unexpected’ artifacts that do not correspond with the common idea of a typical Fort Site in Alberta. Children toys, jewellery, ponies, and glass tools all illuminate a picture of unexpected complexity and diversity at the original town site of Fort Macleod. This presentation links the site of Fort Macleod to a larger scope of how archaeology is taught and practiced in Alberta; preconceived notions of bias and stereotypes affect the kinds of knowledge produced by archaeologists. Acknowledging this bias in pedagogy and archaeological representations of the past is only one small step in ‘unsettling’ archaeology but is vital to changing the colonial foundations of the profession.
03:10 PM: Complicating binaries: A retrospective examination of gender constructions in Western Arctic archaeology
Author(s):
  • Rebecca Goodwin - University of Western Ontario
  • Lisa Hodgetts - University of Western Ontario
“Unsettling” archaeology involves identifying and understanding colonial and other frameworks (both institutional and cultural) that underlie and shape the way we as heritage professionals view the past. Wylie (2017:204) argues that our understandings of the material record are a result of archaeological “scaffolding”: the assumptions we hold about cultural subjects, our background knowledge, and our technical resources. This paper examines the scaffolding that shapes archaeological understandings of gender in the Arctic past through a retrospective survey of the published and grey literature documenting Thule-Inuit and Inuvialuit archaeological sites within the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, NWT. Our analysis highlights how archaeologists have traditionally created and reinforced simple gender binaries through the uncritical use of gendered language and the classification of objects and spaces. We also consider how to apply queer theory to move beyond these normative approaches, towards a more nuanced understanding of the ways in which past Arctic peoples performed their gender identities.
03:50 PM: The Role of Oral Testimony in Queer and Decolonial Archaeologies
Author(s):
  • Meghan  Walley - Simon Fraser University
Oral Testimony has generally been viewed as a way for stakeholders, descendant communities, and the public to establish agency in retellings of the past. LGBTQ2IA+ histories are often erased or downplayed in our narratives of the past, despite ample evidence that gender and sexuality have varied widely culturally, temporally, and geographically. Similarly, Indigenous histories are often recounted through the lens of colonial mythologies, creating distortion and erasure of Indigenous perspectives. While archaeologists have deployed oral testimony to an extent, I contend that this should become a more standard practice, and that we should take advantage of oral history resources readily available to us. Here, I discuss a) my recent research that utilized interviews conducted with LGBTQ2IA+ Inuit to build queer understandings of a precolonial past, and b) my current work with the Archives of Lesbian Oral Testimony, touching on the breadth of already-available, open-access oral testimonies that might be incorporated into archaeological research. In doing so, I will illustrate both the utility and the possibility of archaeological research that is informed by oral testimony.
04:10 PM: Is Archaeology for Me? An Examination of Narrative Accounts from Women in the Discipline.
Author(s):
  • Catherine  Jalbert - Memorial University
While research related to equity issues in archaeology in Canada stagnated after its emergence in the late 1980s-early 1990s, there has been a recent resurgence in studies aimed toward understanding how identity-based politics affect both the archaeological community and the production of knowledge in the discipline. In an effort to add to this body of work, this paper will present results from my Ph.D. research that seeks to understand current gendered dynamics within the archaeological workplace. Conducted through a mixed-methods approach that collected both survey and interview data, I intend to present participant’s qualitative responses that illuminate how traditional modes of archaeological practice and interactions with fellow practitioners might be operating to marginalize and exclude. This will broadly include education and employment experiences and identity related discriminatory attitudes or practices that emerged in these spheres. With consideration toward intersectional analyses, I intend to use this data to further develop relational understandings beyond the male/female dichotomy, complementing yet disrupting past analyses of the social composition of archaeology.
04:30 PM: What does #MeToo mean for archaeology?
Author(s):
  • Natasha Lyons - Ursus Heritage Consulting
  • Lisa Hodgetts - University of Western Ontario
  • Kisha Supernant - University of Alberta
  • John R. Welch - Simon Fraser University
#MeToo is a social campaign initiated to promote ‘empowerment through empathy’ and to gauge the status and magnitude of the problems of sexual abuse and harassment against women in societies worldwide. In its short and powerful life, the movement has grown to look at issues brought forward by marginalized people and communities, particularly those of colour, and to examine power inequalities in workplace environments. Employers across many sectors are being pressured to disclose data on hiring policies, gender-based pay differentials, and sexual harassment claims with a view to creating more equitable and transparent policies and practices that aim to create safer spaces for all people to work, live, interact and communicate with each other. What does the #MeToo movement mean for archaeology? As a social science striving for self-awareness, we take this opportunity to consider gender, age and ethnicity-based dynamics within Canadian archaeology at a personal and structural level based on anecdotal data and a pilot survey, and to begin a conversation about how we might move forward based on our findings.

Tell Us About Your Rocks!: An Exchange of Ideas and Lithic Raw Materials

Time: 
10:30 AM to 04:30 PM
Room: 
Somerset Grey

Session Details

Many archaeologically recovered lithic materials tend to be erroneously categorized during the cataloguing process.  These decisions often occur due to limited comparative collections, misunderstanding of regional geological formations, and only well-known types being published in the literature.  Furthermore, some archaeological rocks and minerals look very similar superficially, and without geochemical testing, can be misidentified.  Since the range and variability of lithic raw materials is not well known to many individuals, it can be difficult to properly identify them if tools are made from either a local or distant source.  In order to gain a better understanding of the range and variability of lithic raw materials, this session will provide an opportunity for attendees to do an informal presentation about their region, bring local materials to display, discuss, and exchange, as well as participate in a flintknapping workshop.  Attendees are encouraged to bring labeled specimens for exchange, unidentified stone artifacts for some opinions on material type, and flintknapping kits.
Organizer(s): 
  • Clarence Surette, Lakehead University

Presentations

10:30 AM: Lost in Fissility: A Soft Rock Story
Author(s):
  • Tiziana Gallo - University of Toronto
Fissile stones used in the manufacture of ground stone tools are the subject of terminological confusions and generalisations. From mudstone to shale, slate and schist, relatively fissile and low hardness stone tools are often given a generic name that is more culture specific than it is petrographically accurate. In addition to limiting the identification of potential raw material sources and exchange networks, this impedes our ability to perceive the technological aspects of such tools’ respective chaînes opératoires, and consequently, of people’s interactions with these various fissile materials. Given their widespread distribution, I propose that a better characterization of distinct types of fissilities in sedimentary and metamorphic stones is key in understanding these raw materials’ unique affordances. This is of particular interest in the case of ground stone tools, as most of their debitage products’ attributes do not conform to those typically observed in chipped stones assemblages. The importance of documenting such variability is supported by a case study from the Middle to Late Archaic Baie Sainte-Marguerite site, which borders the Saguenay Fjord in Quebec. A petrographic characterisation of the site’s mudstone and slate assemblages allowed a better-informed reconstitution of very different manufacturing strategies, debitage attributes and end products, as well as different life histories.
10:50 AM: Lithic materials in archaeological sites from central and northern Alberta
Author(s):
  • Todd Kristensen - Archaeological Survey of Alberta
I review some common and poorly known local and exotic raw materials used to make pre-contact stone tools in central and northern Alberta including Beaver River Sandstone, nephrite (jade), Tertiary Hills Clinker, Grizzly Ridge Opal, Peace River Chert, Knife River Flint, petrified wood, quartzite varieties, porcellanite, obsidian, and others. I present photographic libraries (macroscopic and microscopic), summaries of spatial distributions, specimens for observation, reviews of geochemical and mineralogical work to date, and synopses of significance in Alberta’s archaeological record. More accurate identifications will improve understandingd of pre-contact social networks, migration routes, and patterns of exchange across the boreal forest and subarctic region of western Canada. I conclude with an explanation of, and invitation to join, the ongoing Alberta Lithic Reference Project.
11:10 AM: Neolithic Industry of Long Obsidian Blades: The Case of Aknashen-Khatunarkh (Armenia, Early Sixth Millenium)
Author(s):
  • Jacques Chabot - Laboratoire de recherche sur la pierre taillée/Laboratoires d’archéologie de l’université Laval, Quebec City
Aknashen (formerly called Khatunarkh) is a small Neolithic village of the Ararat Valley located 25 kilometres away from Yerevan (capital of Armenia) and 5 km southwest of Echmiadzin (Vagharshapat). Aknashen is also located only 6 km from another Neolithic village that is contemporary named Aratashen, a site for which we recently published a technological study of the obsidian industry. Excavations have been taking place each year since 2004 at Aknashen. Concerning the lithic material, we identified two main chaînes opératoires on obsidian, which is an abundant raw material in this region: 1) one concerns expedient tools made on flakes; and 2) the other one is related to regular blades. After a brief account of the different obsidian sources used by the inhabitants of Aknashen, our presentation will focus on new research results on the technology of the blade industry obtained by three knapping techniques: standing up pressure with a crutch; pressure with a lever; and indirect percussion. A systematic study of this material makes it possible to recognize the techniques used, but also to observe the great level of know-how of the specialists who carried out this work. However, since the identification of this high level of skill is important to discover from a pure technological point of view, the recognition of pressure with a lever can also constitute an excellent cultural marker. Therefore, it can help to characterize Neolithic cultures that are involved with this technique, document exchanges (trade networks) and possible movements of population or contacts between them, as well as transmission of knowledge.

Ontario Archaeology

Time: 
01:30 PM to 04:10 PM
Room: 
Ambassador G

Presentations

01:30 PM: Fifth Time’s a Charm. Give and take between ceramic objects and craft producers in Ontario’s Late Woodland, seen through Micro Computed Tomography.
Author(s):
  • Amy St. John - Western University
Archaeologists who study craft production, communities of practice, and craft traditions have argued that the way things were done (e.g. repeated motions in potting) were as important to community and individual identities, as the appearance of a finished product was. However, craft producers worked in complex, distracting, and real-world environments, and were subject to the agency of materials and objects. Potential manufacturing mistakes visible in micro computed tomography (CT) scans of Late Woodland ceramic pipes and pots highlight how manufacture was not a step-by-step perfect process, but was sometimes messy, with interaction between materials and craft producers as a give and take relationship. These sorts of interactions between people and clay are difficult to access by examining the exterior of ceramic objects, but micro CT offers a new way to examine these hidden steps in clay manipulation. There is a wealth of anthropological literature on apprenticeship, learning, skill, and specialization, but when it comes to archaeological ceramic objects in Canada it is often only in “juvenile” or “learner” objects that these notions can really be accessed. Using micro CT, we can begin to examine the notion of “error fixing” by potters and pipe makers and question to what extent this was the norm.
01:50 PM: The Unexpected Finds at AhHa-317, a Late Woodland Habitation Site in Hamilton, Ontario
Author(s):
  • Rhiannon Fisher - Golder
AhHa-317 has been interpreted as a possible cabin or special use site with a Late Woodland Attawandaron (Neutral) Iroquoian affiliation.  Preliminary analysis of the pre-colonial Indigenous assemblage observed a large amount of chipping detritus, projectile points and other lithic tools indicative of hunting activities related to food acquisition on or near the site.  A large amount of pottery including decorated pieces dated the assemblage to c. AD 1400-1600 .  While the aforementioned artifact assemblage is typical to that of a Woodland site in the area what was distinct about AhHa-317 was the significant number of artifacts related to fishing instruments such as a bone harpoon, netsinker and fish scales.  A phallic stone, possibly an effigy used as a pestle, is another exceptional find from the excavations at AhHa-317.   This paper explores the frequency of and the relationship of fishing instruments to other artifacts found on Late Woodland sites within the region including sites of the Grand River Valley.  This paper also explores possible uses for the phallic effigy recovered during excavation at AhHa-317.
02:10 PM: Mush Hole Archaeology
Author(s):
  • Sarah Clarke - Archaeological Research Associates, Ltd.
  • Ayla Mykytey - ARA
  • Paul Racher - ARA
In the spring of 2017 an interesting and timely archaeological project began to unfold on the grounds of the former Mohawk Institute Residential School (aka the Mush Hole) at 184 Mohawk Street, Six Nations (Brantford). With limited funding and tight timelines, the volunteer-driven Reconciliation Project was born. Engagement and participation in the project by field liaisons representing the Six Nations Eco-Centre, Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation and Haudenosaunee Development Institute, coupled with the efforts of archaeological volunteers, has arguably produced an arena for a fulsome and meaningful collaboration devoid of the usual pressures arising from development-driven archaeology in the commercial realm. Sarah will reflect on the experience of doing archaeology at the Mush Hole thus far.
02:30 PM: Patterson Village: a 19th Century Company Town in Vaughan Township, York County, Ontario
Author(s):
  • William D. Finlayson - Adjunct Professor, Department of Archaeology and Heritage Studies, Wilfrid Laurier University
Peter Patterson was an American who emigrated to Ontario in about 1850 and set up a shop in Richmond Hill where he started to manufacture fanning mills.  By 1856 he had purchased land west of Richmond Hill, created Patterson Pond to provide water power to his newly constructed manufactory.  By the 1880’s his manufactory comprised more than a dozen buildings and Patterson & Bro. was one of the largest farm equipment manufacturers in Canada.  The factory was closed in 1886 and moved to Woodstock. Peter Patterson constructed a company town beside his manufactory.  Historical documents indicate the presence of 18 houses and a boarding house. Between the fall of 2012 and 2014, This Land Archaeology Inc. undertook the complete salvage excavation of this town.  This confirmed the presence of 18 houses, one of which was occupied by a seamstress and another by a shoemaker.  The boarding house was found to have five associated cisterns and three privies.  A church, a stable and a possible raised storage building were also excavated.  The discovery of 36 privies and several hundred other features in the subsoil provide new insights into life in a company town the latter half of the 19th century.This paper will review results of the excavation of 7.75 hectares of this site with a focus on settlements patterns.  It will also present information of a newly published book on the excavations.
02:50 PM: AT THE CARIBOU CROSSING PLACES, PART 1: CARIBOU HUNTERS IN NW ONTARIO
Author(s):
  • Mike  McLeod - Boreal Heritage Consulting
This paper summarizes, to date, 44 years of research into the earliest recorded evidence of peoples in the Thunder Bay area. It is proposed that they were Caribou hunters moving north from the Minnesota/Ontario boundary waters area, to intercept caribou migrating to and along the glacial front of the Marquette Re-advance which stopped just south of Whitefish Lake c.a. 10,000 BP. This date is derived from an average of C14 dates from forests overridden by the re-advance. A collection of archaeological sites seem to indicate that as the ice margins retreated, caribou and crossing locations moved north with them. A possible three crossing locations, likely related, are suggested. Such crossing locations generally have a habitation area, close to, but slightly removed from the actual crossing. The crossings are usually associated with a body of water for ease of taking the animals where they were vulnerable. Based on artifact recoveries a general layout of one crossing location is proposed. It includes the crossing and possible butchering area. An adjacent habitation area with lookout, tent and work sites is suggested. The ease with which taconite, a local siliceous material used for tool making, was found suggests that the people were in the area in a pre-vegetation situation as the ground was exposed by the ice margin retreat.
03:10 PM: AT THE CARIBOU CROSSING PLACES Part 2 HUNTING TECHNIQUES
Author(s):
  • Mike McLeod - Boreal Heritage Consulting
AT THE CARIBOU CROSSING PLACES Part 2HUNTING TECHNIQUESThis paper, with guidance from the National Film Board’s movie “At the Caribou Crossing Place” andthe interpretation of artifacts from the Crossing Place sites near Whitefish Lake proposes the methodology with which the Caribou were taken. Examination of the lithics indicates that may have been blunted so as to not put any holes in the hide as once prepared they would be used for boat construction, boots, tents and clothing. The people are followed down in time to the Minong shores at about 9,500 BP and artifacts along the way are examined to determine if this methodology holds. It appears that it does with exceptions whereanother method of taking the Caribou is also used. A brief discussion of butchering techniques is proposed and this could add to the interpretation of artifact usages from these sites.
03:50 PM: AT THE CARIBOU CROSSING PLACES. Part 3 THE LAST HUNT
Author(s):
  • Mike McLeod - Boreal Heritage Consulting
This paper follows the hunters in the Thunder Bay area as they respond to the changing environment when the glacial front and migrating Caribou move further north and the Boreal Forest closes in. It is suggested that the hunters adapted to local seasonal rounds close to those recorded in Historic times.  In particular early Jesuit records in the late 1600’s noted that in the summer the people came down (from the Interior) to the Lake (Superior) shore “to fish to trade and to socialize” suggesting that they had spent the winter on the Interior.One site in particular, on the Interior at Dog Lake northwest of Thunder Bay, could represent the earliest evidence of this adaptation to local seasonal rounds. It is suggested that in the fall the People moved to the Interior to take the spawning Whitefish at the mouth of the Dog River and then spent the winter in that area with a local dispersal to take rabbits for food and their warm winter fur for clothing and blankets. The Jesuit records note that rabbits were a mainstay and once an area had been trapped out the people would have to move on. They estimated that a family could need up to 500 square miles for their winter resources.The site appears to be uniquely Palaeo-Indian with that single cultural component as compared to other multi-component sites on the lake. A reason is proposed for this situation.  

Friday, May 4, 2018

Digital Heritage as Disruptive Technology

Time: 
08:30 AM to 12:30 PM
Room: 
Ambassador B

Session Details

Disruptive technologies are technological innovations that upset existing networks supporting the ways that things have traditionally been done. This session explores how digital technologies are “disrupting” the ways we document, manage, access, and even perceive tangible and intangible heritage. What implications do such transformations have for heritage agencies, museums, Indigenous communities, and archaeologists? Topics of relevance include methodological advances in digitally capturing and mobilizing traditional knowledge; digitally preserving large and small-scale heritage sites using UAV’s and terrestrial laser scanners; using point cloud data to identify and track changes impacting heritage resources; designing and developing online archives and metadata schemes for managing digital heritage data; 3D replication and reconstruction of heritage resources; and virtual exhibits and online tours as tools for repatriating objects and knowledge. We are interested in papers exploring these and other theoretical and methodological issues surrounding digital heritage, and welcome case studies from across Canada and around the world.
Organizer(s): 
  • Peter C. Dawson, University of Calgary
  • Scott Hamilton, Lakehead University

Presentations

08:30 AM: Using Photogrammetry to Record a Rock Art Glph at Writing-On-Stone, Alberta
Author(s):
  • Bob Dawe - Royal Alberta Museum
  • Owen Murray - OMM Photography
One of the largest inventories of aboriginal rock art on the Plains occurs at Writing-On-Stone Park situated on the Milk River in southern Alberta.  Over one hundred rock art sites of varying complexity and content have been identified.  In all cases the petroglyphs and pictographs are fashioned onto the weathering sandstone bluffs and hoodoos that characterize the topography of this area.  Erosion continues to diminish this unique and important cultural resource.  Various methods of accurately recording the artwork have been undertaken over the last century, including drawing, tracing, photography, casting, and laser scanning, each of which poses certain challenges and limitations.  In this paper we evaluate the use of photogrammetry as a viable alternative to these other methods of recording rock art.  A case study is presented where photogrammetry was used to record an unusual petroglyph panel in a small rockshelter at the Haven site, DgOw-79.  The potential applications of photogrammetry for archaeology are vast and beyond the scope of this paper, but this study does demonstrate it is especially well suited for rock art study.  We believe the various benefits of photogrammetry should argue for this method of recording to be a regular consideration in the further documentation of this deteriorating resource. 
08:50 AM: Behind the Scenes of Digital Heritage: A Case Study of Brooks Aqueduct.
Author(s):
  • Christina Robinson - University of Calgary, Department of Anthropology and Archaeology
  • Peter  Dawson - University of Calgary, Department of Anthropology and Archaeology
  • Xiufeng Peng - University of Calgary, Department of Computer Science
  • Zahra Hadavand - University of Calgary, Department of Geomatics Engineering
  • Elisa Rubalcava - Historic Resources Management Branch, Alberta Culture and Tourism
  • Denis Gadbois - University of Calgary, Department of Art
Brooks Aqueduct is a unique structure that played a vital role in bringing large-scale agriculture to southern Alberta in the early 20th century. Three digital heritage products are playing fundamental roles in the management of this 3.2 km long structure. The first is a three-part monitoring tool that consists of; a Building Information Model (BIM), terrestrial laser scanning, and UAV photogrammetry. Secondly, a public digital archive is being produced for 3D datasets, and thirdly a virtual tourist destination composed of modern panospheres overlaid with historical images. Through this case study, we will demonstrate how the production of digital heritage can impact all aspects of heritage management, from data collection to public engagement, and explore best-practices for creation and curation of digital heritage.
09:10 AM: A 3D Geometric Morphometric approach for the analysis of Paleoindian projectile points in northwestern Ontario: Tracing migration of the first peoples
Author(s):
  • Dave Norris - Western University
Paleoindian projectile point variability in northwestern Ontario consists reflects diverse shapes and forms, but comparatively small numbers of specimens from widely dispersed sites.  Over the past 70 years of Paleoindian documentation within the region, no typology has been established due to this ambiguity.  Traditional means of recording shape variance including caliper measurements of length, width and thickness, but has done little to sort out the variation of form.  Additionally, the variation of form has led to educated speculation and uncertainty regarding the migration of the first peoples into the northwestern Ontario area.  This presentation will introduce a new 3D geometric morphometric approach to the examination of shape variance of these Paleoindian projectile points.  Focus of the analysis is based on shape variance of the basal portion of projectile points, given that these change over space and time and are considered to yield the most culturally laden information.   The approach applies 3D scanning technology, 3D geometric morphometric software and statistical analysis to compare overall shape of Paleoindian projectile points in northwestern Ontario to adjacent surrounding areas such as Manitoba and Minnesota.  Results from the analysis suggest complex patterned variability in overall shape and form in Paleoindian projectile points, that suggest diverse stylistic similarities to those from surrounding areas which, in turn imply complex patterns of diffusion or migration.
09:30 AM: Change Detection and Changing Technologies in Archaeological Heritage Management
Author(s):
  • Kelsey Pennanen - University of Calgary
  • Peter C. Dawson - University of Calgary
Digital Technology is viewed as transformative in archaeology as it has the potential to “disrupt” established field practices.  For example, the rapid documentation of archaeological sites using terrestrial laser scanning can disrupt current frameworks for managing erosion and documenting other slow-moving agents of change.  Regardless, many researchers continue to use digital technology in rather conventional ways. This includes using laser scanning and photogrammetry to duplicate many traditional field recording methods such as mapping excavation units and documenting stratigraphic profiles. While 3D visualization of archaeological sites can be beneficial, we argue that the analytical possibilities of point clouds and other forms of digital data need to be further explored.  For example, techniques such as change detection analysis, used in geomatics engineering, offer a means of identifying and documenting how slow-moving changes impact archaeological sites over time. In this paper, we offer some examples of how digital technology can disrupt archaeological field methods using a case study from a Buffalo Jump site in southern Alberta.
09:50 AM: Multispectral Photogrammetry of Cultural Landscapes on the Northern Plains from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platforms
Author(s):
  • Leslie (Butch) Amundson - Stantec Consulting Ltd.
  • Kevin Grover - Stantec Consulting Ltd.
  • Grant Wiseman - Stantec Consulting Ltd.
  • Margaret Kennedy - University of Saskatchewan
  • Brian Reeves - University of Calgary
As early adopters of technology, especially for creating accurate maps, archaeologists have been using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to discover and record archaeological features, landscapes and excavations since they became commercially available. This project tested the use of visual (RGB), near-infrared (NIR) and thermal sensors mounted on UAV platforms (fixed wing and multi-rotor) to discover and record archaeological features in their landscape context with georeferenced, high resolution imagery of three landscapes on the Northern Plains that contain a variety of cultural features, including stones circles, boulder alignments, stone cairns and medicine wheels. We created digital layers to compare with the results of conventional archaeological survey, in cooperation with an ongoing archaeological survey near the forks of the South Saskatchewan and Red Deer Rivers in southwestern Saskatchewan. We applied both Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) and desktop visual examination of the imagery captured in this project to determine whether interpretation results were similar to conventional survey and whether conventional survey and UAV-based multispectral imagery recognized different features. The project evolved to include applying the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to identify features, both surface and buried, using OBIA to recognize ancient anthropogenic influences on vegetative health. Our efforts have expanded to application of high resolution satellite imagery in a variety of contexts.
10:30 AM: No Longer Standing: Digital Accessibility at the Perrenoud Homestead
Author(s):
  • Madisen  Hvidberg - University of Calgary
  • Peter Dawson - University of Calgary
The disassembly of structurally unsound heritage buildings for the purposes of safety and development is a well-established practice. Oftentimes this removal comes with the intent of moving, reassembling, or rebuilding the structure in the future. Located just outside of Cochrane, AB the Perrenoud Homestead is one such site, taken apart and placed in storage in the summer of 2017. It is composed of two residences and is a heritage site valued for its significance to the establishment of early ranching operations in Southern Alberta. During its disassembly, the Perrenoud Homestead was digitally documented using terrestrial LiDAR scanning and drone-based photogrammetry. The utilization of these methods is important in innovating not only access to this heritage resource while the physical structure of the homestead is absent from the site, but in providing a roadmap for future steps in this project. In this paper, I discuss the Perrenoud Homestead project, focusing on the use of digital methods to "disrupt" traditional heritage practices surrounding public accessibility to sites that have been removed.
10:50 AM: Capture, Archive, Monitor, Mobilize: The Alberta Digital Heritage Archive as Disruptive Innovation.
Author(s):
  • Peter Dawson - University of Calgary
  • Christina Robinson - University of Calgary
  • Kelsey Pennanen - University of Calgary
  • Madisen Hvidberg - University of Calgary
The concept of disruptive innovation was first defined and analyzed by American scholar Clayton M. Christensen, and it refers to technologies that disrupt existing networks supporting the status quo for how things are done. Documenting buildings using hand measurements, monitoring damage via visual inspection, and commemorating significance through signage are just a few examples of how government agencies have traditionally managed heritage resources in Canada. In many areas of the world, reality capture technologies such as terrestrial laser scanning are revolutionizing how we document and preserve heritage sites for future generations, as well as communicate their significance to the public. As such, they are the very definition of “disruptive technology”. But what exactly is being disrupted? In this paper, we examine this question through an open access digital heritage archive recently created at the University of Calgary. We explore how the archive could potentially transform existing networks that support how provincial heritage resources are captured, archived, monitored, as well as experienced by the public.  
11:10 AM: The use of LiDAR terrain data in Alberta archaeology was more disruptive than anticipated
Author(s):
  • Robin Woywitka - Archaeological Survey of Alberta
  • Colleen  Haukaas - Archaeological Survey of Alberta
  • Todd Kristensen - Archaeological Survey of Alberta
The Government of Alberta began investing in airborne Light and Detection Ranging (LiDAR) digital eleveation data in 2009. Within two years, these data became the new standard in digital terrain data within the government. The use of LiDAR increased the fidelity and reliability of models in geology, hydrology, agriculture, forestry, transportation, and archaeology, and was recognized as game-changing in these terrain-based disciplines. As expected at the outset of the use of a new technology, the initial presentation to the archaeological community of LiDAR-based assessments was met with a mix of enthusiasm, healthy skepticism, and, in some cases, reluctance to integrate the new technology into existing archaeological practice. Nine years later, LiDAR has become a welcome fixture of many archaeological programs, particularly in the northern part of the Province where thick vegetation cover complicates the selection of survey target areas.  There also remains a lingering hesitation among some researchers for the technology, despite increasing evidence of the efficacy of LiDAR-based analysis in identifying sites. In this talk we summarize the archaeological uses of LiDAR in Alberta archaeology, and discuss the effects that its adoption has had on survey results in the northern part of the Province. We also examine the theoretical and contextual factors that may explain why the introduction of this new data source was disruptive in the Alberta archaeological community.
11:30 AM: New views to a Kill: Drone photography and photogrammetry to document the landscape archaeology of Bison Kills
Author(s):
  • Scott Hamilton - Lakehead University
Communal bison killing has a long history on the Great Plains, but it is often difficult to document how landscape features contributed to hunt success. This reflects archaeological preoccupation with artifact-rich kill and processing zones, compounded with difficulties envisioning past landscapes at sufficient resolution. This has improved with better quality satellite imagery, but low elevation drone-assisted photogrammetry offers significant opportunity. Several sw Manitoba communal kill sites are reviewed to illustrate this mapping capacity. Future innovation will occur with ready availability of Lidar, and especially with Virtual and Augmented Reality. While such technology is already in place, its cost and complexity has limited widespread application. Such technologies will become truly ‘transformative’ or ‘disruptive’ as capacity, cost and ‘user-friendliness’ become balanced as consumer products.
11:50 AM: Exploring Húy̓at: A Cultural Keystone Place of the Heiltsuk, British Columbia
Author(s):
  • Dana  Lepofsky
  • Jennifer Carpenter
  • Mark  Wunsch
  • Nancy Turner
There are some cultural landscapes that are inseparably intertwined with the history, identity, and wellbeing of particular groups today. These deep connections grow out of generations of people interacting with these landscapes in a myriad of ways. Húy̓at, on the central coast of British Columbia, is one such place for the Heiltsuk First Nation. At Húy̓at, we have documented the layers of Heiltsuk experiences as recorded in the archaeological record, oral traditions, songs, language, place names, terrestrial and marine ecology, and memories. To present these layers in a way that reflects their multi-dimensional connections, and to be accessible to the Heiltsuk and other communities today, we have assembled the eco-cultural data in a web site and touch screen to be placed in the community. In our presentation, we will explore Húy̓at together by presenting a quick overview of this website.
12:10 PM: Disruptive Digital Technologies and the Future of Canadian Archaeological Employment
Author(s):
  • Terrance H.  Gibson - Western Heritage
Looking back more than 40 years, it is evident that the vast majority of Canadian archaeological practitioners have not been particularly quick to adopt emergent digital technologies as part of their regular operations. There are many reasons for this, such as shortcomings in post-secondary archaeological curriculums, outdated regulatory requirements and simple disinterest from the professional community who prefer to focus on traditional artifacts as the focus of their interpretations. Yet, it is my belief that archaeologists with a proclivity to rely solely on “stones and bones” as their primary information source, largely eschewing other kinds of data, will likely find themselves filtered out of the discipline as digital technologies become ever more important in data collection and archaeological interpretation. This is because only those with skills commensurate with understanding, developing and using complex digital archaeological tools that yield more data from cultural deposits will be considered employable. Other “traditionally focussed” archaeologists and support technicians will find themselves redundant as “normal” archaeological work is taken over by ever more complex digital machine processes used in the field and in the lab. In this presentation, examples of past, current and impending archaeological job redundancies caused by digital technologies will be discussed, as well as those archaeological employment positions that will likely thrive in the midst of accelerating digital advances.

Learning from the Ancestors II: Collaboration and Community Engagement

Time: 
08:30 AM to 12:10 PM
Room: 
Terrace West

Session Details

In recent decades, repatriation debates have forced heritage practitioners around the world to confront the problematic pasts of their disciplines. Protective heritage legislation and policy has since offered a means to return Indigenous heritage and ancestors. But without a clear path forward, these discussions have sometimes exacerbated existing tensions between Indigenous communities and researchers. Explosive cases like Kennewick Man, or the Ancient One, demonstrate this. However, collaborative projects offer an opportunity to address both problematic disciplinary pasts and build productive, mutually beneficial relationships. Well known cases like Kwäd̖āy Dän Ts’ínch̖i in Canada or the On Your Knees Cave project in the US offer examples of the potential benefits for both researchers and community partners involved. Building from a recent session held at the University of Calgary’s Chacmool conference in 2017, this session will continue to explore a diverse group of projects in North America that actively collaborate and engage with Indigenous communities in the care, scientific study, and repatriation of ancestors and their belongings.
Organizer(s): 
  • Chelsea Meloche, Simon Fraser University
  • Katherine Nichols, Simon Fraser University
  • Laure Spake, Simon Fraser University

Presentations

08:30 AM: What Happens Next? Repatriation as an Essential Part of Reconciliation
Author(s):
  • Chelsea Meloche - Simon Fraser University
The collection and control of Indigenous ancestors and their belongings for research or museum display has directly contributed to the loss of cultural patrimony and to the intergenerational trauma of colonialism. Successful repatriations can be a form of restorative justice and an essential part of reconciliation by reinstating ownership and control to Indigenous descendant communities. However, involvement in repatriation work can also affect communities in a variety of ways and may carry unanticipated burdens for those involved. Canada’s recent commitments to reconciliation underscore the need for further exploration of repatriation and the ways it can affect descendant communities. In this paper, I explore how these effects have been explored and identified in repatriation literature and consider what may be missing.
08:50 AM: Returning Respect and Dignity to the Forgotten through Culture
Author(s):
  • Koda  Tacan - Sioux Valley Dakota Nation
  • Toni Pashe - Sioux Valley Dakota Nation
  • Katherine Nichols - Simon Fraser University
In 2013, Sioux Valley Dakota Nation became the first Self Governing First Nation in the prairie provinces. This shift into Self Government has brought about many positive and challenging changes for the community. These changes include our impending involvement in events that are culturally important while also holding an archeological component. During the building of new homes in the community, a final resting place was discovered and a working relationship with the Manitoba Heritage Resource Branch was formed. This relationship will come into play again now that Sioux Valley Dakota Nation has stepped forward to be the voice for the forgotten children in the original cemetery of the Brandon Industrial Residential School. Sioux Valley has also stepped forward, declaring it is time that our ancestral belongings, art and ceremonial items, return home from foreign museums and archives. Though the archeology plays an essential role in the repatriations, it is our cultural ceremonies that will bring honour and respect to their homecomings. It is time for all those forgotten and now found to be returned home.
09:10 AM: The Journey Home
Author(s):
  • Sue Rowley - University of British Columbia, Museum of Anthropology
  • David M. Schaepe - Stó:lō Research and Resource Management Centre
The discourse of prescription, legislation and best practices about repatriation may imply there is only one path and that at the end of the pathway is repatriation, journey’s end. Setting one’s sights on repatriation it is possible to forget that the journey informs the process and is as important as the end.  The journey is where process is negotiated, preconceptions are challenged, and relationships are forged. Those actively engaged in repatriation are well aware that every step represents variation and potential challenges to long-held perceptions, assumptions and understandings.  Repatriation, as a process, is a potential point of entry and means by which Indigenous communities and cultural heritage institutions have the opportunity to work together, establish common ground, create relationships and moving forward toward future joint destinations.  In this talk we will discuss The Journey Home Project carried out between the Stó:lō House of Respect Caretaking Committee and the Laboratory of Archaeology at UBC.
09:30 AM: Honouring the Ancestors
Author(s):
  • Kevin Brownlee - Manitoba Museum
The Manitoba Museum has been working collaboratively for over 25 years on the analysis of ancestral remains with Indigenous communities from across Manitoba. The focus has been on ancestral remains impacted by hydro electric development in the province and the museum has taken the lead on analysis of artifacts and return of information to communities. I have been fortunate to have worked on many project beginning in 1993 in a variety of capacities, as an undergraduate, museum intern, graduate student, civil servant and curator. Not surprising over the past 25 years, my understanding, attitude and how I approach ancestral remains has changed dramatically. Dr. E. Leigh Syms and I have created numerous display cases, books and posters for communities. I will share how my experiences guide two of my current projects. One project examining ancestral remains from the Winnipeg River (Southeast Manitoba) the other focused on Southern Indian Lake (northern Manitoba). I feel these ancestors guide me as I tell their story, ensuring they are never forgotten.
09:50 AM: Collaborative Curation of Human Remains - a Field Museum and IMLS National Leadership Project
Author(s):
  • Emily Hayflick - Field Museum
  • Helen Robbins - Field Museum
  • Patience Baach - Field Museum
“Collaborative Curation: Building a 21st Century Model for the Care of North American Human Remains" is a three year Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) funded initiative to pilot forward thinking, collaborative, and ethical curation, documentation, and physical care of North American human remains housed in museum collections. The project aims to build networks among scientific, museum, academic, First Nations, and Native American representatives. As part of this goal, the Field Museum hosted a symposium to discuss collaborative curation with a number of partners from across North America. This paper will highlight themes, goals, lessons learned, and participant evaluations from the symposium, as well as the next steps developed in collaboration with the symposium attendees. Finally, we will feature discussions related to digital components of museum curation and record keeping.
10:30 AM: Respectful Return, Community by Community: Developing Repatriation Policy at the Royal BC Museum
Author(s):
  • Genevieve Hill - Royal BC Museum
  • Lucy Bell - Royal BC Museum
The Royal BC Museum has the monumental task of returning numerous ancestral remains to their descendent communities. The simple task of moving remains from one place to another is complicated by a variety of circumstances, from the methods of acquisition, the existing regulations and policies, and the widely varying levels of existing documentation, to the sheer number of communities to which they must be returned and with whom we must consult. How, then, does the RBCM develop policy and protocol to move forward and meaningfully collaborate with indigenous communities when "one size (does not) fit all"? This paper will explore the ways in which the RBCM is putting its own house in order and how it is engaging indigenous communities from across British Columbia in order to ensure ancestral remains and belongings are returned in a manner that is appropriate for the receiving communities.
10:50 AM: First Nations Cultural Property, Community, and Museum Collections: Solving Complex Issues with Good Will
Author(s):
  • Helen Robbins - The Field Museum
  • Isabelle  Genest - Société d’histoire et d’archéologie de Mashteuiatsh
  • Lyne  Da Sylva - Université de Montréal
  • Louise  Siméon - Musée amérindien de Mashteuiatsh
Institutional structures and the prevailing laws within Canada and the US exist to protect rights of ownership, access, and control, but for First Nations these systems are experienced as disrespectful to the people and their cultural property. So what can be done to share and promote openness while recognizing indigenous interests and authority? Here we will show how the First Nation of Mashteuiatsh, the Field Museum, and the University of Montréal formed a partnership to address complex issues related to photographic copyright law. In this case we worked together to resolve competing interests and obligations related to the use and reproduction of images of an important collection from the Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean region of Quebec. These cultural items collected by Frank G. Speck in the 1920s and held by the Field Museum in Chicago are of great cultural and historic importance to the community of Mashteuiatsh. Although museums must conform to norms and legal requirements, much can be done to work in a positive way to overcome barriers and to respect the rights of the originating communities.
11:10 AM: Indigenous Cultural Resource Ceremonies
Author(s):
  • Jim Jones - Minnesota Indian Affairs Council
Indigenous Cultural Resource Ceremonies looks at the relationship that Indigenous people have with archaeological sites and with sacred places. Spiritual connections that Indigenous people have with the land, waters and even with the stars and with the cycles of the moon. How is this relationship defined within modern archaeology and cultural resource management today? The relationship and the connections to places that we originate from. The villages, communities, towns, and the cities. Places are a way in which we identify ourselves, in Ojibwe culture that is the traditional way to introduce one’s self. Your dodem and where you’re from. Just like these artifacts that lay beneath the ground. What is it that lays there? What is the type of artifact or place? What is the age of the artifact or site? Where you’re from, your community? This is one of the many ways that indigenous cultural resource ceremony is defined within everyday lives of Indigenous people. People have been interpreting our past and our cultures without having a clear understanding of whom we really are as a people and have little or no understanding of our cultures and our spiritual beliefs.
11:30 AM: Collaboration and Geophysical Surveys: Respecting the Resting Place of Indigenous Ancestors
Author(s):
  • K. David McLeod - Senior Archaeologist, Stantec Consulting Ltd., Winnipeg, MB
Stantec Consulting Ltd. (Stantec) has completed a number of collaborative studies with Indigenous partners at existing cemeteries and historical burial grounds to provide a detailed map of marked and unmarked grave locations. These studies have been completed with a variety of objectives including cemetery closure, assisting with confirming community traditional knowledge, or protection from potential development of the site. Studies have been conducted in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. The paper will discuss work completed for Fisher River Cree Nation (Manitoba), One Arrow First Nation (Saskatchewan), and Pheasant Nakota First Nation (Saskatchewan). Fisher River Cree Nation was closing the community cemetery and developing a new graveyard. The community wanted a plan of the old cemetery showing marked and unmarked burials as a part of closure. Stantec completed two geophysical studies with One Arrow First Nation, one involving the location and exhumation of Chief One Arrow in the St. Boniface Cathedral Cemetery in Winnipeg, MB, the other at the possible burial site of Chief Chacastapasin and his family near St. Laurent -Grandin SK. The study with Pheasant Rump Nakota Nation consisted of geophysical surveys in two areas where oral tradition said there were unmarked burials.
11:50 AM: Confronting the Truth and Working toward Reconciliation: Collaborative Archaeology and Bioarchaeology in the Post-TRC Era
Author(s):
  • Kisha Supernant - University of Alberta
In 2015, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission released 94 Calls to Action, many of which pertain to archaeology, museum studies, and bioarchaeology. These Calls to Action come at a time when Indigenous communities in Canada are more involved in archaeology than ever before and when Indigenous communities are increasingly the drivers of the study of ancestral remains. In this paper, I explore how archaeologists and bioarchaeologists can respond to the TRC Calls to Action, focusing both on the specifics of certain calls and broader implications for transforming our field and our practice. If we want to move toward a better future for all people on these lands currently called Canada, we need to first face the truth of our history and the ways the structure of our discipline today upholds settler colonialism. Moving toward community-oriented and community-driven research is an important step, but we also need to explore how museums, institutions, governments, and educational settings structure how people interact with and understand Indigenous history. Here, I provide some case studies that expose the underlying tensions within our discipline that we need to address before we can imagine a reconciled past for the future.

Northern Archaeology

Time: 
01:30 PM to 04:10 PM
Room: 
Ambassador D

Presentations

01:30 PM: High and Dry on Ontario’s Tundra: Marine Wreckage along the Ontario Shores of the Hudson Bay Lowlands
Author(s):
  • Jean-Luc Pilon - Canadian Museum of History
In the summer of 2017, I was brought to view 6 distinct marine-related sites on the shores of Hudson Bay between the community of Fort Severn, Ontario and the Manitoba border. One is likely the partial remains of a dock facility of some kind. Two others consist of wooden winches but beyond some relationship with the ocean, their ultimate identification remains a mystery. The last three appear to be the remains of late XIXth century wooden sailing ships. Further research on the wooden ship hulls suggests they were parts of a single ship, tentatively identified as the Hudson’s Bay Company ship Cam Owen, built in 1883 in Prince Edward Island, sold to the HBC in 1884, run aground 1886 in northern Manitoba and eventually ending its travels grounding again and breaking up near the mouth of the Niskibi River east of the Manitoba border.
01:50 PM: Salvaging on the Coast of Erebus Bay: An Analysis of Inuit Interaction with Material from the Franklin Expedition
Author(s):
  • Dana Thacher
Over the course of the 19th century, many European explorers sailed in search of a Northwest Passage through the Canadian Arctic. These journeys brought them into territory occupied by Inuit, who both traded with the explorers for various goods and interacted with the material that they left behind. The Inuit then sometimes altered these goods to suit their own needs and the alterations had the potential of ascribing new meaning to the material that was different from what the European manufacturers intended. In this research, I will examine the remains of two ship’s boats from three sites on King William Island (NgLj-2, NgLj-3, and NgLj-8) that were abandoned by members of the Franklin expedition and subsequently found and altered by an Inuit sub-group called the Netsilik to reveal the motivational factors behind their actions. By combining the conceptual frameworks of entanglement and salvage, it appears that Inuit utilized these boats in a manner that reflects (1) their environment, (2) what the material afforded, (3) their past experiences with Europeans and European material, and (4) their intended uses of the material.
02:10 PM: Human and Ecological Responses (or not) to the Northern White River Ash Eruption
Author(s):
  • Holly A Smith - University of Alaska Fairbanks
The White River Ash northern lobe (WRN) volcanic eruption deposited a blanket of tephra along the Yukon - Alaska border ~1600-1900 cal BP. Investigations into the effects that the WRN eruption had on the environment and indigenous populations to date have been limited. Fine grain pollen analysis of a lake core from 6-Mile Lake (Eagle, AK) was conducted above and below the tephra to provide data in order to analyze flora responses. In addition to this ecological context, a collaborative excavation was completed in 2017 at the Forty Mile Territorial Historic Site (LcVn-2), with the Yukon Government and Tr’ondëk Hwëch’in First Nation. Artifacts and fauna from the excavation, along with previous surveys, are analyzed to explore the cultural response to this eruptive event. Preliminary results of this thesis project will be presented.
02:30 PM: Questioning Archaeological Conclusions: A Reassessment of Junius Bird's 1934 Labrador Excavations at Avertok and Karmakulluk
Author(s):
  • Jacinda Sinclair - Memorial University
Junius Bird's 1934 Hopedale Area Survey saw excavations conducted at Avertok and four other sites in Labrador's Hopedale region. The project, and its focus on Inuit sod-houses, became a foundation to much of the archaeology that followed in Labrador. However, today there are questions regarding how 1930s ideas may have led to poor methodological choices, such as the intentional discard of European-derived artifacts, and thus ultimately inaccurate conclusions. Beyond their place in the history of archaeology, these sites remain culturally important to local Inuit populations because of their roles in the region's 17th and 18th century whaling, trade, and early Moravian presence. As part of the Tradition & Transition Research Partnership (T&T) between Memorial Univeristy (MUN) and the Nunatsiavut Government (NG), MUN's Archaeology Department began the Avertok Archaeology Project (AAP), fulfilling local requests to preform achaeological reassessments at two of Bird's five sites in the summer of 2017. This presenation intends to (1) discuss Bird's original conclusions and the means by which he reached them and (2) to evaluate which of these conclusions are now understood to be inaccurate and in what ways. Along with this, the multiple streams of data used including those specifically designed to assess Bird's methodologies and achieve this re-evaluation will be discussed.
02:50 PM: Thule Copper Toolkits: Diversity in Cost and Innovation
Author(s):
  • Matthew Pike - Purdue University
Definitions of Thule culture typically include an abundance of metal use, technological specialization, highly efficient travel technologies, and interconnected social and trade networks that spanned the North American Arctic.  Native copper has been recovered from archaeological sites from Northern Alaska to Northern Greenland, but is concentrated most heavily near geologic sources in the Central Arctic.  Extensive trade networks and efficient travel facilitated the dispersal of copper throughout the arctic, but also likely accumulated costs (and increased values) as raw copper or produced objects were moved further from sources.  This analysis addresses the influence of these costs on decision-making surrounding copper technology.  A comparison of diversity in Thule copper assemblages and modelled travel times from geologic sources to archaeological sites provides a glimpse into the patterning of copper tool distributions across the north.
03:10 PM: Thule Iron Use: New Thoughts on Old Questions
Author(s):
  • Paddy Eileen Colligan - The Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York, NY
The Neoeskimo Thule, or the Thule Inuit, occupying the North American Arctic from Alaska to Greenland approximately 1000 AD to 1400  - 1500 AD, are ancestors of today’s Iñupiat, Inuit and Kalaallit/Greenlanders. They hunted marine mammals, caribou, and birds, at times using weapons tipped with iron from Greenland’s Cape York meteorite or with smelted iron from sources outside North America circulated via their extensive trade networks. Evidence from the last thirty years has challenged the chronology of the Thule Migration from Alaska to Greenland and earlier understanding about iron that was available to the Thule. The reassessment has benefitted from recent excavations; longterm, interdisciplinary projects; new technologies; cut mark analysis; and spatial analysis enabled by GIS-based data from government-maintained archaeological databases.
03:50 PM: Materiality and Meaning on the Polar Hem: An Analysis of Late Dorset Metal Exchange
Author(s):
  • Patrick Jolicoeur - University of Glasgow
The Late Dorset (ca. AD 500-1300) are thought to be one of the first groups living in the Eastern Arctic to widely exchange metal. However, there is little surviving physical evidence to assess the nature and extent of this early metal trade. This paper will present newly collected data on existing non-metal Late Dorset collections from across the Eastern Arctic to more fully assess the value of using potential proxy indicators of metal use. By comparing harpoon head and knife handle blade slot sizes between Late Dorset and earlier assemblages, this paper will demonstrate that Late Dorset metal use is much more intensive and extensive than what the existing distribution of metal objects reflects. This more detailed picture of Late Dorset metal exchange is important not only for understanding how Eastern Arctic groups used and valued metal for its physical properties but also how the materiality of the metal objects may have been used as a medium to connect seemingly disparate groups through time and space. While the distribution of Late Dorset art and architecture has been used to demonstrate the interconnectedness of Late Dorset, the presented data offer a new opportunity to debate Human-Thing interaction and its role in creating and maintaining social relations at a time when other groups, such as the Inuit and Norse, were beginning to enter the Eastern Arctic and the Late Dorset themselves began to disappear.

Poster Session

Time: 
01:30 PM to 05:50 PM
Room: 
Ambassador C

Presentations

Archeology and Memories on Birch Island
Author(s):
  • Julia Brenan - Memorial University
The site of Birch Island has been targeted by the non-profit Healthy Waters Labrador (HWL) and larger Labrador tourism initiative for conservation, environmental education, and commemoration of the former Birch Island settlement. The settlement began in 1942 during military construction when Labradorians moved into the area of Lake Melville, Labrador for work. The settlement was occupied by about 60 families until 1969 when it was resettled under the Fisheries Household Resettlement Program in an effort to centralize and modernize the mostly rural province. Over its existence, the community experienced rapid change and a shift in lifeways due to military expansion in the area. Due to no previous archaeological research being done in the area, the objective of this research was to perform a preliminary investigation of the island utilizing the archaeology of the recent past linking landscape use, lifeways, memory, and archival components of the site to gain a well-rounded perspective and explore the archaeology and history of Birch Island. This will inform the historical interpretation and commemoration planned by HWL for the site. To fulfill this objective, an artifact analysis was done, 17 individuals were formally interviewed, archival sources were looked at, and a map of surface debris from the former settlement was created. The analysis shows the changing landscape, the island’s traditions, and everyday interactions at a level of detail that could not have been achieved without the use of artifact analysis, archives, interviews, and mapping.
Augmented Collections: A Fresh Look at the University of Saskatchewan Archaeological Collections
Author(s):
  • Terence Clark - University of Saskatchewan
This poster demonstrates augmented reality as a useful approach for making inaccessible collections accessible to the public. Using the mobile app Augment, highlights of the University of Saskatchewan’s archaeological collections will be virtually presented to the public for the first time. Hidden archaeological gems will be given the spotlight they deserve through new technologies.
Before Avalon: Palaeoethnobotanical Explorations into Beothuk-European Interactions at 16th-century Ferryland, NL
Author(s):
  • Emma Lewis-Sing - Memorial University of Newfoundland
The nature of Beothuk-European interactions is nothing short of complex. The most circulated narrative tells of Beothuk indigenous peoples moving inland from the central Newfoundland coast so as to distance themselves from the increased presence of Europeans, with whom they came to develop poor relations over contested subsistence resources; isolation from these resources eventually led to Beothuk population decline. The understandings of Beothuk-European interactions upon which these interpretations are based are often reevaluated and revised as new lines of evidence are factored in. This in-progress research project involves a macro-analysis of the palaeoethnobotanical record at the archaeological site of Ferryland, on the east coast of Newfoundland’s Avalon Peninsula, in the hope of contributing to these interpretations. Sediment samples were collected from contexts associated with lithic material manufactured by Beothuk peoples. There is evidence for the presence of European migratory fishers in these same 16th-century strata. Previous subsample analyses of the sediments produced charred grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds. Historical records suggest that European fishers offered raisins to Beothuk peoples they encountered, which might account for deposition of these seeds (Deal & Butt 2002). Therefore, full analysis of the remaining sediments offers the opportunity to further explore this and other hypotheses. Additionally, this research will contribute to the Ferryland narrative before permanent European settlement at what has come to be colloquially known as the ‘Colony of Avalon.’ Reference Cited: Deal, Michael, and Aaron Butt2002   The Great Want: Current Research in Beothuk Palaeoethnobotany. In Hunter-Gatherer Archaeobotany: Perspectives from the Northern Temperate Zone, edited by Sarah L. R. Mason and Jon G. Hather, pp. 15-27. University College London, London.
Bone Accumulation by Contemporary Urban Scavengers in Mississauga: Implications for Archaeological Site Formation and the Interpretation of Historic Faunal Assemblages
Author(s):
  • Trevor Orchard - University of Toronto Mississauga
  • Michael Brand - University of Toronto Mississauga
  • Patryk Weglorz - University of Toronto Mississauga
This poster presents the results of two seasons of systematic mapping and surface collection of a bone scatter located in a forested area of the University of Toronto Mississauga (UTM) campus. The assemblage contains a combination of modern, butchered, domestic animal specimens, and the bones of smaller, wild species common in the local environment. Various lines of evidence suggest that this scatter is the result of ongoing coyote activity, with this location representing a site for the consumption of a combination of discarded table scraps, scavenged from nearby neighborhoods, and local wild species, particularly small rodents, hunted or scavenged from the local environment. This assemblage highlights the range of bones that can be accumulated through coyote behavior in urban environments, and illustrates some of the taphonomic impacts that result. Furthermore, this scatter site is located near several late 19th and early 20th century residential sites that have been investigated over the past five years by the UTM archaeology field school. These investigations have produced similar assemblages of domestic animal remains, raising the possibility for scavenger activity to impact archaeological deposits by contributing similar, but non-contemporaneous, faunal specimens. We outline several implications of such scavenger activity for the formation and interpretation of archaeological faunal assemblages.
Bridging Time: Exploring Saskatoon’s Hidden Heritage
Author(s):
  • Karin Steuber - Saskatchewan Archaeological Society
  • Tomasin Playford - Saskatchewan Archaeological Society
The project presents a widely accessible, dynamic and synthesized historical narrative that better reflects the longevity and diversity of the human experience in Saskatoon through a smartphone app and augmented reality printed maps. The content includes 10 archaeological, 10 First Nation, 10 Métis and 10 settler vignettes. Using archival photos, 3D artifact models and interview clips, the story comes alive for the users of the map and the app. It is also a legacy of the Canada 150 celebrations as it showcases the roles of First Nation, Métis and settler communities in the City of Saskatoon. The multi-media platforms encourage people of all ages to physically explore Saskatoon as they participate in, and contribute to, a shared heritage.
Cambridge Hill Cave: A Preliminary Characterisation of Skeletal Remains
Author(s):
  • Stephanie  Skelton - University of Winnipeg
  • Amber Tetreault - University Of winnipeg
  • Jelani Dennis - University of Winnipeg
  • Maddie  Lischka - University of Winnipeg
  • Steven  Mellor - University of Winnipeg
  • Shereday  Bennet - University of the West Indies
  • John Shorter - University of the West Indies
  • Erica Lee - University of Winnipeg
  • Tyler  Brown - University of Winnipeg
  • Mirjana   Roksandic - University of Winnipeg
The potential of commingled skeletal remains is often overlooked. However, valuable information can be gained from these collections. Cambridge Hill Cave is located east of Kingston, Jamaica and is a likely Taino site. The associated skeletal remains are currently held at the Jamaica National Heritage Trust. Analysis of these remains commenced August 2017, during a University of Winnipeg field school and currently, ½ of this collection has been analysed. The collection is in a commingled state, due to both taphonomic factors and human interference. Thus, the characterisation of this collection centered on intensive analysis of individual elements, as is common in ossuary contexts. This analysis revealed an MNI of 25 individuals, with over 50% scoring female. Almost all individuals showed evidence of cranial manipulation.  Though this collection presents challenges to interpretation, much can be learned about the demography and health of this population. Possibilities for future analysis and methods of correlating individuals are discussed.
Community Emotional Understandings of Canoe River, Lac Seul First Nation Through a Dynamic Land Use and Occupancy Map
Author(s):
  • Holly Fleming - Lakehead University
The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples identifies a duty to protect traditional knowledge. Thus, my thesis research seeks to develop a better understanding of Indigenous land-use in the Lac Seul region of Northwestern Ontario. Specifically, I will address Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) using geospatial methodologies in order to: (1) comprehend sentiments surrounding the abandoned community of Canoe River through interview transcriptions; (2) develop a dynamic land-use and occupancy map based upon emotional constructs of Canoe River; (3) reconstruct the pre-flood ecological data on the landscape as well as the strategic location of this site; and (4) provide Lac Seul First Nation with an interactive map biography. I will employ transcripts from the Community Based Participatory Research of Dowsley and Oliveira (2017). As well, further interviews will be conducted to understand land use and occupancy of the Canoe River site. The questions will focus on the sentiments surrounding Canoe River and the current and past uses of the area, identifying old settlements and other important localities. The proposed study will use ArcGIS and Python programming to illustrate the complex interactions between environment, the culture and the sentiment attachment to Canoe River. Throughout the process, consultation with the Lac Seul First Nation peoples will transpire and the information obtained from the research will be presented to the community. Through this work, these land use maps will better serve the community by providing a digital archive of TEK. The result of the project will create a dynamic map of their emotional connection to Canoe River for future generations of First Nation peoples.
Cranial Modification in Jamaican Taíno remains from the Cambridge Hill Caves, St. Andrews
Author(s):
  • Amber Tetreault - University of Manitoba
  • Audene Brooks - Jamaican National Heritage Trust
  • Ivor Conolley - University of West Indies
  • Mirjana  Roksandic - University of Winnipeg
Taíno skeletal remains from the Cambridge Hill Caves in St. Andrews, Jamaica held at the Jamaican National Heritage Trust (JNHT) were examined during the summer of 2017. This poster provides an overview of cranial deformation in the context of Jamaica, and the preliminary findings on the instances of Cranial Modification occurring in the JNHT Cambridge Hill Cave remains. While authors had noted that there were 24 skulls collected from the cave by C.B. Lewis, of which all were said to exhibit cranial modification, only 19 skulls were present in adequate condition to be examined for cranial modification. Resulting changes to the cranial vault included but was not limited to a combination of; flattening of the frontal, broadening of the skull at the parietals, flattening of the occipital, depressions at sagittal, lambda, and/or post-coronal, and sagittal keeling. The morphological changes in the 19 skulls examined were the result of minimal to extensive levels of different tabular styles of cranial modification, which fits into pre-existing data on practices of cranial modification from the region.
Documenting a possible house feature along the severely eroded shore of Lost Lake.
Author(s):
  • Scott Hamilton - Lakehead U
  • Brad Hyslop
Hyslop’s sustained program of archaeological reconnaissance within the Lac Seul basin has yielded many archaeological sites damaged by hydro-electric flooding. One such site on Lost Lake has yielded three adzes that are stylistically reminiscent of Middle Holocene forms. The site has been severely attacked by wave action, deflating the silt matrix and leaving a cobble lag upon bedrock. Repeated spring archaeological inspections before floodwaters rise have revealed nothing except the three adzes. We speculate that the wave erosion has scoured away the silt, smaller artifacts and clasts.  A large oval accumulation of rocks surrounding a central clast-less area is apparent upon the cobble beach. The feature was documented using low elevation drone photography and photogrammetry to critically address whether it is of human origin, and if so, what the original site configuration might have been like.
Documenting a submerged ring feature using remote sensing methods, Boulevard Lake Reservoir, Thunder Bay.
Author(s):
  • Scott Hamilton - Lakehead U
  • Chris McEvoy - Lakehead U
  • Jason Stephenson - Lakehead U
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and side scan sonar devices were used to document a rock feature as a test of consumer-grade equipment for archaeological documentation. This large C-shaped feature is usually submerged beneath the Boulevard Lake reservoir (created ca. 1905), but it periodically reappears during times of low water. In 2015 the reservoir was nearly drained to permit dam repairs, exposing the rock ring and enabling aerial documentation. In 2016 it was again submerged, and was reinvestigated using side-scan sonar. At issue is the cost-effectiveness and resolution possible with the UAV. The resurvey with side-scan sonar addressed whether a hull-mounted fish finder could detect features in shallow water, and if so, how precisely the geo-referenced unconformities matched features mapped in the UAV images.
Early 19th-Century Gentry Lifeways on the Southern Avalon: The Carter House, Ferryland, Newfoundland
Author(s):
  • Duncan Williams - Memorial University
This poster presents results from the first season of excavation at an early 19th-century dwelling in Ferryland, a rural community in southeastern Newfoundland. This is the first project to (archaeologically) examine some of the changing lifeways on the rural Avalon Peninsula associated with the shift from a migratory fishery to a family-based resident fishery. Using a combination of archaeological data, geospatial methodologies, archival research, and oral history, a micro-historical perspective on a single household during the first half of the 19th century is provided. Research reveals that the imposing structure was associated with a series of prominent individuals including merchants, ship’s captains, and members of public office. Curiously, the site appears to have been abandoned after only a half-century or so of occupation and has largely been erased from public memory.
Examining Trends in Archaeology Enrollment and Graduation Rates: 1992-2012
Author(s):
  • Catherine Jalbert - Memorial University
According to the Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT), the overall enrollment of students in degree-granting programs at Canadian universities reached an all-time high between the years 1992-2003. Within the disciplines of archaeology and anthropology, evidence suggests a similar trend in which departments are both enrolling and graduating students at an increased rate at all levels. Using information obtained from Statistics Canada’s yearly Post-Secondary Information System (PSIS) national survey, I will present aggregated data on overall enrollment and graduation rates for undergraduate and graduate programs that include archaeology for years 1992-2012; this consists of data from standalone archaeology programs, anthropology programs, and classical and ancient studies. Within this, I will include a presentation of these data by university department to highlight differences or changes in program size. Data from the PSIS will also be used to examine binary gendered relationships and age distributions to determine if any trends exist in student demographics.
Kay-Nah-Chi-Wah-Nung Historical Centre – The Place of the Long Rapids
Author(s):
  • Kayleigh  Speirs - Rainy River First Nations
  • Christie Hunter - Rainy River First Nations
  • Tasha Hodgson - Rainy River First Nations
The Kay-Nah-Chi-Wah-Nung Historical Center, the Place of the Long Rapids, is located along the banks of Manidoo ziibii or Spirit River (Rainy River). Also known as Manitou Mounds, the site is a National Historic Site of Canada, and is situated within the largest concentration of known burial mounds in North America. Owned and operated by Rainy River First Nations, the centre provides the community with a unique opportunity to protect and preserve their heritage, while also presenting and educating visitors about Ojibway traditions from their own perspective. The centre features both summer and winter programming including interpretive tours and galleries, groomed skiing and snowshoe trails, and a restaurant serving traditional cuisine.
Micro-refuse Analyses as a Prospecting Method
Author(s):
  • Michael Duncan - Undergraduate Student at Lakehead Univeristy
Conventional approaches to archaeological evaluation involve excavation of shovel test pits, ranging is size from 30 to 50 cm diameter, spaced at 5 or 10 metre intervals, and with ¼ inch screening of backfill. This methodology is quite time consuming, but yields only a small sample size with which to derive interpretations. As an alternative strategy, soil sampling using a coring tool was undertaken (ca. 6.7 cm diameter sample from the top 15 cm of the soil profile with sample spacing at 2 metre intervals). This sediment sampling method enables rapid field collection, but with more time required in lab processing and analysis under more controlled conditions using finer screens. While the coring tool used is only suitable for shallow sites, and site evaluation must await lab processing and analysis, the recovery of minute objects normally discarded in the field is compelling.At issue is whether the information return justifies the additional time required for lab processing and analysis. This was addressed using samples collected from the Martin Bird site where recent field research offers direct comparison of the insight deriving from several alternate site evaluation methods.
Modelling communal bison kill operations using UAV photography: Investigations at the Toews Site, Manitoba.
Author(s):
  • Scott Hamilton - Lakehead University
Communal bison hunting is generally well known in the Great Plains archaeological and ethnographic literature. While often involving use of the landscape to facilitate bison entrapment, modelling these operations can be difficult given ecological transformation and the generally poor quality of site maps. Experimentation with low elevation drone photography and photogrammetry at the Toews Site offers a case study of emerging methodologies to document site localities, and model how landscape was deliberately employed to improve odds of success.
Oalthkyim: A shíshálh Defensive Site on the Northwest Coast
Author(s):
  • Kali E. A. Sielsky - University of Saskatchewan
  • Dr. Terence  Clark
The site of Oalthkyim (DjRw-2), is located in Coast Salish lands on the Northwest Coast of North America, and is thought to be defensive in nature. Excavated as part of the shíshálh Archaeological Research Project (sARP) over the past two years, with research ongoing, I took on the column samples as a part of my independent research project to try to gain an overview of the site in terms of ecological and household factors. Defensive sites are known to be in use from approximately 500-800 B.P. in the Salish Sea region, which coincides with a period of increased warfare and raiding. Used as a means of refuge and protection, these naturally defensible landscapes housed individuals for periods of time until it was safe to return home. My poster will examine the use of defensive sites on the Northwest Coast, the components that distinguish these types of sites from others, why we believe this is a defensive site​, how this specific site relates to others in the area, as well as my research into the living conditions while Oalthkyim was occupied.
Osteological Analysis of Skeletal Remains from Pre-Columbian Jamaica
Author(s):
  • Tyler Brown - The University of Winnipeg
  • Erika Lee - The University of Winnipeg
  • Sherdaye Bennett - The University of the West Indies
  • John Shorter - The University of the West Indies
  • Clive Grey - The University of the West Indies
  • Mirjana Roksandic - The University of Winnipeg
This poster assesses the distribution and preservation of skeletal elements from the James Lee Collection of Pre-contact Jamaica. Data was collected during the summer of 2017, by The University of Winnipeg students who performed assessments and catalogued osteological remains from archaeological excavations across Jamaica as part of their Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee scholarship. In this poster we focus on sites where cranial elements and dentition were found. We produced a quantitative assessment of the geographic distribution for the 107 teeth in The James Lee Collection, provide MNI per site and expanded upon prior analyses of elements to characterise each site. Cranial measurements and non-metric traits were catalogued to bioarchaeological standards. Taphonomic descriptions of all elements in the collection were scored, and any potential pathologies were noted based on standard methods. Photographs were taken of all available cranial elements and dentition for cataloguing and reference purposes. Any postcranial elements exhibiting morphological variation and/or pathological changes were photographed. Photo numbers were recorded in the data sheet for further reference. The stages of development for isolated teeth was determined based on Harris et al. (1990) to calculate an accurate MNI. The full reassessment demonstrates that the James Lee sites contained a variable number of individuals and juveniles, all with variable evidence of gross pathology and cranial modification.
Preliminary analysis of dentition from the Cambridge Hill collection (St. Thomas, Jamaica)
Author(s):
  • Madeline  Lischka - University of Winnipeg
  • Jelani Dennis - University of Winnipeg
  • Steven  Mellor - University of Winnipeg
  • Stephanie Skelton - University of Winnipeg
  • Amber Tetraulta - University of Winnipeg
  • Audine Brooks - Jamaica National Heritage Trust
  • Ivor  Conolley - University of The West Indies
  • Mirjana Roksandic - University of Winnipeg
We present the preliminary results of the dental analysis of the partial collection of remains housed at the Jamaica National Heritage Trust (JNHT) that we examined during the summer research internship with the QES 2017. The Cambridge Hill collection was acquired by JNHT from a local collector, who presumably used explosives on the site in order to collect the remains. The site was previously examined, and the bones were labelled without further analysis. Only 1/3 of the collection was examined during our research visit due to time constraints. We catalogued the remains using the Standards for Data Collection for Human Skeletal Remains. Material was photographed and recorded using a Samsung S7 and a Canon Dslr. The assemblage consisted of unassociated skulls, teeth and long bones of an indigenous pre-Columbian population. Based on dental remains, we calculated an MNI of 11 for the three areas marked by different numbers, and of 3 from an area marked as “unknown”. The presence of caries, calculus, and occlusal surface wear were recorded. The incisor shoveling was most commonly observed of the morphological features. We discuss the possible archaeological implications of this collection.
Salt Hay (Spartina spp.) in Acadian Animal Husbandry
Author(s):
  • Eric  Guiry - University of British Columbia
  • Stéphane Noël - Université Laval
  • John Fowler - Saint Mary’s University
Success with animal husbandry is often considered a key variable in understanding how and why early New World settlements succeeded or failed. However, many aspects of past animal husbandry practices, such as foddering strategy, can leave little or no archaeological traces and can therefore be difficult to reconstruct. Fodder, particularly hay production, was an important element of early Acadian husbandry success and focused partly on naturally occurring marsh grasses (Spartina spp.) called ‘salt hay’. Salt hay became so important in the context of coastal Acadian husbandry strategies that methods for harvesting and winter preservation of salt hay were developed and large dikes were constructed, in part, to increases these grasses’ productivity. Unlike most other grasses used for hay production in northern environments, salt hay species possess a photosynthetic pathway (C4) that makes them, and the animals that feed on them, isotopically distinctive. We use stable carbon isotope analyses of bone collagen from archaeological cattle (n = 103) as well as sheep and goats (n = 70) from five Acadian archaeological sites to establish the presence and importance of salt hay use during the seventeenth to eighteenth centuries in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Results suggest that fodder for 60% of cattle included salt hay. In contrast, only 5% sheep and goats consumed a significant amount of salt hay. Our findings provide a new baseline for assessing the importance of salt hay use, and coastal marsh environments more generally, in historical contexts in early colonial northeastern North America.
“Islands of Exception”: Uncovering the Maritime Cultural Landscape of Saint-Pierre et Miquelon, 1670-1970
Author(s):
  • Meghann Livingston - Memorial University of Newfoundland
Although long viewed as a peripheral French settlement, the islands of Saint-Pierre et Miquelon were in fact an essential component to colonial expansion throughout the Atlantic World. Saint-Pierre’s sheltered harbour among other geographic features including the islands’ close proximity to the Grand Banks, made them an ideal place for carrying out various shore-based activities associated with the cod fishery for hundreds of years. Saint-Pierre et Miquelon was known to have year-round settlers as early as 1670 and would become the only remaining French permanent settlement within the region following 1763. These small islands continued to supply cod to the Metropole well into the 20th century, beyond the end of the French migratory fishery in Newfoundland in 1904. They are also the only part of Colonial New France to remain under French governance today. Given this history and its changing role within the French North Atlantic World, Saint-Pierre et Miquelon can be viewed not only as an integral part of the historic French cod fishery but also as a unique cultural landscape within its own right. As part of the first-long term historical archaeology endeavour on the islands, this research focuses on changes that went on at a particular site called Anse à Bertrand in Saint-Pierre, which has revealed evidence of occupation from the late 17th to late 20th century. This poster explores the unique cultural landscape of Saint-Pierre et Miquelon and how it has changed over these centuries from the perspective of our current study area, Anse à Bertrand.

Reclaiming the Past: Community-Led Archaeology and Collections Management

Time: 
01:30 PM to 06:30 PM
Room: 
Terrace West

Session Details

This session presents an opportunity for community members and researchers to share stories of collaboration and community-led projects. As the topic of truth and reconciliation within archaeology becomes increasingly important, so too does the need for respectful, open communication and strategies to transition the discussion into actions. Transparency within archaeology as well as in museums, that house ancestors and material culture of Indigenous communities, is essential in developing pragmatic, culturally sensitive methods and policies. That viewpoint will allow the opportunity for archaeologists and Indigenous communities to move forward together. Topics of discussion may include: repatriation; the accessibility of museum collections to Indigenous communities; reconciliation through collections and exhibit management; and the digitization, sharing, as well as returning of knowledge about communities to them. Stories concerning the evolution of narrative, examples of partnerships and community-directed projects in which archaeologists act as facilitators, in addition to how to begin and maintain these important conversations are welcomed. If time allows, this session will be followed by a moderated round-table discussion enabling the opportunity to share ideas generated during the session.
Organizer(s): 
  • Kayleigh Speirs, Rainy River First Nations
  • Tasha Hodgson, Rainy River First Nations

Presentations

01:30 PM: Opening Ceremony and Words from Al Hunter
Author(s):
  • Al Hunter - Rainy River First Nations
Al Hunter is an Elder and former Chief of Rainy River First Nations. He is an award-winning poet and has extensive experience teaching in both academic and community settings, as well as with the negotiation of land claims. As one of the participants in David Arthur’s archaeological surveys at the Manitou Mounds, Al provides a unique perspective of the relationship between Indigenous communities and archaeology. Further, as the original voice in the on-going repatriation efforts the community is currently involved in, he has been witness to the process from the very beginning. Al will be opening the session, and speaking on his experiences with archaeology, repatriation, and collaboration.
01:50 PM: Ando Giiwè Idoo Daa: Bringing Home the Ancestors
Author(s):
  • Kayleigh Speirs - Rainy River First Nations
  • Willie McGinnis - Rainy River First Nations Council Member
  • Gary Medicine - Rainy River First Nations Council Member
  • Shawn Brown - Rainy River First Nations Council Member
  • Tasha Hodgson - Rainy River First Nations
Excavations in the 1950’s-1970’s saw the removal of artifacts and Ancestors from burial mounds located on the traditional territory of the Rainy River First Nations (RRFN). For thousands of years, the people of RRFN have acted as caretakers of Manidoo ziibii or Spirit River (Rainy River) and the people who rest along its shores. It is through this position as stewards that the decision was made in 2016 to locate, document, and where appropriate, reclaim artifacts, culturally significant items, and Ancestors that have become dispersed across North America. The repatriation will see the return of close to 4000 artifacts and over 30 Ancestors from burial mounds in the region, including those from Hungry Hall, which are currently located at the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM). This discussion will focus on the challenges faced by the community as well as the ROM in preparing for this return. It will additionally highlight the collaborative nature of this project, including an anticipated reburial in 2018, as well as a community-led exhibit and book that will serve as a re-telling of the history of the mounds, their excavations, and the repatriation process from the perspective of RRFN.
02:10 PM: Greater than the sum of its parts: on the importance of Indigenous-led museum research and repatriation
Author(s):
  • Craig Cipolla - Royal Ontario Museum
In this paper I frame my approach to collaborative Indigenous museum research—both as it relates to my part in a specific collaborative repatriation research project led by the Rainy River First Nations and to my general responsibilities as Curator of North American Archaeology at the Royal Ontario Museum. I outline the ways in which my professional development, work history, and identity as a non-Indigenous settler colonist shape my approach to Indigenous-led research and repatriation in a museum setting. I highlight issues of communication, transparency, and responsibility as they relate to my main goal as a museum professional and practicing archaeologist: to help build better archaeologies, anthropologies, and museums that respect Indigenous interests, sensibilities, and needs while recognizing the ongoing impacts and inequalities of settler colonialism.
02:30 PM: The Royal Saskatchewan Museum and Repatriation Endeavors in Saskatchewan
Author(s):
  • Evelyn  Siegfried - Government of Saskatchewan
The Royal Saskatchewan Museum has existed since 1906 and has been involved in archaeological and ethological collection care for decades, long before the Heritage Property Act (1980). Both the archaeology collection and the ethnology collection have been involved in repatriation issues and efforts since the latter 1980’s to the present. Policies have been written and implemented for human remains and sacred and ceremonial objects. This has all been done without legislation. Policies are easier to amend and revise as needed. These endeavors are not well-known, especially within the Indigenous communities in Saskatchewan. This talk will provide a brief review of the history and results of the policy initiatives and the current state of the collections, including potential changes that may be happening in the future.
02:50 PM: We are Not All Treaty People Yet: Renewing Treaty Relationships at the Manitoba Museum
Author(s):
  • Maureen Matthews - Manitoba Museum
This paper, like the new We are All Treaty People exhibit we refer to, is the product of a collaborative relationship between the Manitoba Museum’s Curator of Cultural Anthropology, Dr. Maureen Matthews, three Commissioners of the Manitoba Treaty Relations Commission, Dennis Whitebird, Jamie Wilson, and Loretta Ross, their excellent staff and very importantly with Dr. Harry Bone, Chair of the Elders Council of the Treaty Relations Commission and the Association of Manitoba Chiefs and the members of the Elders Council. This paper  explains how Treaty related objects and their indigenous histories, political connections and social realms, enabled the creation of a First Nations centered exhibit about the numbered Treaties at the Manitoba Museum that in spirit and conception, invokes the respectful relationship aboriginal Treaty negotiators envisaged.  A history of nasty betrayal followed the negotiation of the Treaties and people who visit the museum often ask why, given these bitter memories, First Nations people wish to commemorate Treaties which have not achieved their promise.  The Elders answer that signing the Treaties was not the end of negotiations but the start of an ongoing relationship based on principles of sharing.  They argue that as long as a respectful relationship can be imagined, there is reason to believe that we will return to the mutually beneficial conversation initiated by First Nations leaders and representatives of the Crown in the late 19th century.
03:10 PM: Archives, oral history and material record: weaving a narrative of local history
Author(s):
  • Susan Lofthouse - Avataq Cultural Institute
For many descendent communities, a wealth of information on local histories is hidden in archival documents and grey literature. The extraction of this information can be difficult, particularly when dealing with documents that are not only difficult to locate but also often hand-written – even harder to decipher if the language is not the mother tongue of the reader. This is where academic methods of research can facilitate access to that information. This paper will present research relating to early-mid 20th century cemeteries in Nunavik. The two examples given are located within zones earmarked as provincial parks by the Nunavik Parks division of the Kativik Regional Government. As the parks are naturally created in areas that contain many appealing camping and hunting spots, they unsurprisingly contain lengthy occupation histories. Both cemeteries are located near trading posts: one dates to the 1920s/1930s, the other to the 1950s. The creation of new parks in Nunavik involves extensive archaeological surveys and reconstruction of local histories relevant to the adjacent communities. The cemeteries themselves are old enough to be considered archaeological in nature. The investigation of archival documents, combined with oral histories and modern interviews with surviving elders, allowed the identification of individuals who were buried there. While some names had survived in the memories, the documentation of this information allows it to remain preserved for posterity.
03:50 PM: Historical Designation of Cultural Landscapes through Oral History and Archaeology: First Nations Sturgeon Conservation and Use on the Rainy River
Author(s):
  • David Mather - Minnesota State Historic Preservation Office
On the Rainy River at the international boundary between northwest Ontario and Minnesota, Manitou Rapids and Long Sault Rapids are culturally and ecologically important spawning grounds for lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and other fish. Manitou Rapids is the location of the Rainy River First Nations community and sturgeon hatchery, and they own and operate the Kay-Nah-Chi-Wah-Nung Historical Centre at Long Sault Rapids. The latter area is a National Historic Site featuring the Manitou Mounds, including the largest ancient earthwork in Canada. In recognition of their cultural and historical significance, the portions of both rapids south of the international boundary are being considered for historical designation in the United States, through nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. The cultural significance of the rapids is connected to the presence of sturgeon, as documented through interviews with elders from Rainy River First Nations, and Ojibwe communities in northern Minnesota. Archaeological sites provide support and context, including rock art, earthworks and ancient fishing camps containing sturgeon bone at the rapids. These places are connected to other historically designated sites on the Rainy River, including the Grand Mound and McKinstry Mounds in Minnesota. Manitou Rapids and Long Sault Rapids are the centers of significant cultural landscapes that include geological and hydrological features, archaeological sites, historical vegetation, and the sturgeon themselves.
04:10 PM: From the Land of Plenty – Documenting Sites and Collections With and For the Community
Author(s):
  • Belinda Riehl-Fitzsimmons - Saskatchewan Archaeological Society
Community members are valuable sources of information about collections, sites and protecting the past.  Efforts to formalize hand-drawn maps and notes of a long-time prairie “explorer”, and catalogue his extensive archaeological collection, became critical for members of a small Saskatchewan community museum after his passing in 2011.  This paper details how readily people can come together to share their passion and commitment to conserve and protect a landscape and its heritage resources which have provided sustenance for thousands of years.
04:30 PM: Museums & Indigenous Collections
Author(s):
  • Cathy  McGirr - Museum & Cultural Services, Bruce County Museum & Cultural Centre
  • Doran Ritchie - Saugeen Ojibway Nation (SON) Environment Office
This presentation will focus on Bruce County Museum & Cultural Centre’s relationship with our First Nations communities in Bruce County and more specifically the role of the Museum as it relates to being the repository for First Nations archaeological collections. Examples of recent collections related transfers and studies working with all parties, Museum, First Nations and Archaeologists will be examined.
04:50 PM: Collaborative Collections Management at Kay-Nah-Chi-Wah-Nung
Author(s):
  • Tasha Hodgson - Rainy River First Nations
  • Christie Hunter - Rainy River First Nations
  • Kayleigh Speirs - Rainy River First Nations
Kay-Nah-Chi-Wah-Nung Historical Centre, the Place of the Long Rapids, is a historically significant meeting place along the banks of the Rainy River and the location of the largest concentration of known burial mounds in North America. The centre currently houses approximately 10,000 artifacts excavated in the 1970s from village sites associated with these mounds, most of which have not been extensively examined since that time. The current state of the centre’s collections area is not up to industry standards, and the resulting initiatives to inventory, upgrade, develop, and disseminate knowledge of the collection will be the focus of this discussion. Highlights will include facility upgrades based on an assessment from the Canadian Conservation Institute and the application of culturally appropriate and engaging methods. Specific topics include cataloguing procedures and the incorporation of community protocols and belief systems, digitization and increased accessibility, site-specific content development, and the sharing of knowledge and narrative to community members.

Testing the Waters: Fathoming the Archaeology of Lake Systems in the Canadian Boreal Forest

Time: 
01:30 PM to 03:30 PM
Room: 
Ambassador B

Session Details

Indigenous peoples have inhabited the Canadian boreal forest since plants and animals first spread into the ecozone following deglaciation. It is this landscape where people adapted through time to become the diverse groups that are present today. One of the most striking and significant characteristics of this hinterland is the thousands of large freshwater lakes that have often been overlooked from a cultural perspective. Archaeology, ethnohistory, and oral history demonstrate that along with the other waterways that connect them, these lakes were, and still are, an essential part of Indigenous peoples’ transportation networks. Even more importantly, lakes continue to be places that people inhabit for longer periods of time and repeatedly (i.e., representing their homes, ceremonial centres, grocery stores, banks, and other important locales). In this session, presenters will celebrate these significant Canadian subarctic geographic features and the landscape, cultures, and history associated with them.
Organizer(s): 
  • Scott Neilsen, Department of Archaeology, Labrador Institute, Grenfell, Memorial University
  • Jill Taylor-Hollings, Department of Anthropology, Lakehead University

Presentations

01:30 PM: Blood is Thicker than Water: Long-Term Cultural Insights from Two Lakes along the Bloodvein River (Miskweyaabiziibee) in Northwestern Ontario
Author(s):
  • Jill Taylor-Hollings - Lakehead University
The Miskweyaabiziibee (Bloodvein River) flows from the east side of Woodland Caribou Provincial Park in northwestern Ontario into Manitoba, terminating at Lake Winnipeg. While this Canadian Heritage River is a boreal forest watercourse, it is unusual because it forms a tributary between lakes that are considered to be culturally distinctive units by Ojibwe traditional knowledge holders, present day park users, and likely people in the precontact. Although there has been limited research across this portion of the central Canadian Subarctic, collaborations allowed the rare opportunity to study the Bloodvein River in Ontario one or two lakes at a time across its entirety of approximately 106 km. Working together with three Ojibwe communities having traditional territories in the park and Ontario Parks’ employees, a series of research surveys were conducted resulting in learning about archaeology, ethnohistory, oral history, and parks management information. Results of the Knox and Paishk Lake studies will be discussed including: highlighting the benefits of these community partnership projects; the learned culture history that we now know spans from the Middle Period through to the present; and some Indigenous perspectives.
01:50 PM: Stories from an Innu Hunter and their implications for conducting archaeology in the hinterland of the Québec-Labrador Peninsula.
Author(s):
  • Scott Neilsen - Memorial University
In 1970 the Québécois anthropologist Serge Bouchard spent time with the Innu hunter Mathieu Mestokosho, and recorded stories of his childhood and adult life in Nitassinan, on the Québec-Labrador peninsula, which he later published in the book Récits de Mathieu Mestokosho, chasseur Innu, and the English translation Caribou Hunter: A song of a vanished Innu life. Looking at the life history presented in these books through an archaeological lens provides valuable information for boreal forest archaeologists, and Cultural Resource Managers, to consider when planning and undertaking fieldwork, and perhaps more importantly, when writing about the archaeological history of this region. In this presentation information contained within the stories of Mathieu Mestokosho is used to comment on the importance of lakes and rivers for mobility, habitation, and resources, on the degree and quantity of sites that archaeologists can expect to be present in Nitassinan, and on the conception of archaeological and cultural history.
02:10 PM: Hocus Pocus: A Reservoir Basin’s Eroding Shoreline and the Artifact Disappearing Act
Author(s):
  • Brad Hyslop - Vesselquest
Lac Seul is a large water body located within the boreal forest region of northwestern Ontario. The construction of a nearby hydro-electric dam in 1930 increased water levels on the lake by up to five meters. Most archaeological sites, located at or near the shorelines, have been impacted to some degree. Artifacts, features, and other evidence indicating utilization by previous cultural groups have been altered or entirely washed away. I will outline some of the dramatic changes that have occurred to Lac Seul resulting from the inundation and subsequent erosion of the shoreline around the lake. Techniques utilized when confronted with the “archaeology of the invisible” will be discussed within the context of three sites that have been investigated on Lac Seul.
02:30 PM: A homeland ill defined by lines on maps, drawn by others.
Author(s):
  • Anthony  Jenkinson - Tshikapisk Foundation
  • Chelsee  Arbour - Memorial University of Newfoundland
Amongst a nomadic people such as the Innu/Iyu for whom epic journeys by small family groups were almost routine, the land became defined by its lakes, rivers and travel routes and by stories and human events associated with points in this familiar landscape. For the Innu inhabitants it was most certainly not defined by the cartographic abstractions representing jurisdictional divisions conceived and imposed upon, and established without reference to, the system of peoples, regional identities and natural features, which it supplanted. Particularly during the seasons of open water, Innu/Iyu travel mostly followed watercourses and lake systems and these waterways and wetlands produced much of the food depended on, not only from the water but in the more heavily vegetated valleys through which rivers flowed between lake systems. A way of living without fixed settlements and incorporating travel over immense distances produced a relationship with territory which was simultaneously both intimate and expansive and which was quite different from that of urban dwellers or agricultural societies. The establishment of the settler state of Canada and the earlier colonies of which it was eventually constituted brought a way of defining territory which was both alien and mystifying to those who found themselves divided and dispossessed by the exercises in cartography, missionary endeavour and colonial administration which followed.
02:50 PM: Beaver ponds and swamps and infilled ponds, oh my! The Boreal Forest grocery/general store.
Author(s):
  • Kyle Belanger - Circle CRM Group Inc.
  • Jean-Paul Foster
  • Eugene Gryba
Due to the largescale oil extraction in northeastern Alberta, archaeologists have had the opportunity torecord thousands of sites within the Boreal Forest region, stretching between the area near FortMcMurray and the Birch Mountains in the north to Christina Lake by Conklin in the south. Many of thePrecontact sites were found along rivers, streams, and lakes in the region; however, in the past not allwater features have been treated equally when it came to identifying archaeological potential. Thispaper will explore three geographical regions in the oil sands that have had extensive HistoricalResource Impact Assessments carried out over a large area. It will reveal that small water bodies, suchas wetlands, bogs, marshes, beaver ponds and infilled ponds, have not been equally weighted as highpotential features within the landscape. For the purposes of Precontact habitation patterns and land usepractices, these features, which are often indistinguishable from the surrounding forest in orthophotos,topographic maps, and other data sources traditionally used by archaeologists in pre-field planning,represent resource availability equaling that of the larger, extant water bodies. We present a number ofarchaeological sites identified along the margins of smaller water sources that feature assemblagescomparable to those recorded near larger lakes.
03:10 PM: Negative Test Pits: Are You Positive?
Author(s):
  • Brad Hyslop - Vesselquest
In many places, such as Lac Seul in Northwestern Ontario, the boreal forest remains a challenging landscape for conducting archaeological fieldwork and research. I will outline certain characteristics of this environment in terms of the “invisible footprint” and also describe difficulties encountered when working within this ecozone. The methods initially used to test interior forested areas of the Subarctic are outlined. Issues regarding determining the positive or negative status of a test pit will be discussed. Revised methods and examination procedures currently being utilised for investigations on Lac Seul are contrasted with ones used earlier. The efficiency and effectiveness of past and present methods is evaluated.

Saturday, May 5, 2018

Canadian Pre-Columbian Archaeology in Cuba

Time: 
08:30 AM to 12:10 PM
Room: 
Terrace East

Session Details

The Archaic Age in the Caribbean is estimated to have lasted between 5000 BCE and 200 BCE, characterized by a marine-based subsistence with no food production. However, results of Cuban-Canadian research project developed during the last 10 years build a more complex picture of Archaic Age groups in the Greater Antilles. Rigorous application of scientific techniques to skeletal material and archaeological remains from several sites from Matanzas and Granma provinces demonstrate very early use of (exotic and local) cultivated plants, the concurrent existence of two different subsistence systems in the western parts of Cuba, and a survival of these groups till the end of the 1st millennium CE. In this session, participants will be presenting – and discussing the implications of – new data collected through archaeological, bioarchaeological, paleoethnobotanical, isotope analysis, bathymetric, and linguistic studies conducted on the island of Cuba, and explore the problems of migration and exchange within the Greater Antilles and between the islands and the mainland (Central America). Introducing novel research results from Cuba will invigorate current discussions and provide a blueprint for better understanding of Archaic Age societies and of the peopling of the Greater Antilles.
Organizer(s): 
  • Ivan Roksandic, University of Winnipeg
  • Yadira Chinique de Armas, University of Winnipeg

Presentations

08:30 AM: Problems and potentials of pollen analysis as a cultivation indicator: a case study from Cayo Coco, Cuba
Author(s):
  • Anna Agosta G'meiner - Research Associate at PerosLab
  • Matthew Peros - Bishop's University
  • Nadine Kanik - Western University
  • Bill Buhay - University of Winnipeg
  • Mirjana Roksandic - University of Winnipeg
We present pollen, macrocharcoal, and isotopic evidence from Cenote Jennifer, a flooded sinkhole on Cayo Coco, Cuba, which indicates possible prehistoric settlement in the region. The sinkhole is one of the few freshwater basins on Cayo Coco and is the focus of intensive and ongoing paleoenvironmental investigations. Numerous archaeological sites are located on the cays westward of Cenote Jennifer and on the mainland, including the Taino settlement of Los Buchillones. There are no known archaeological sites on Cayo Coco, likely due to a lack of archaeological surveys than due to a lack of prehistoric presence. Our paleoecological data shows an increase in disturbance indicators (e.g. Senna spp., Asteraceae) beginning around 2800 cal yr BP, suggesting that humans may have been on Cayo Coco several thousand years earlier than previously realized. Moreover, several large pollen grains have been identified from ~850 BCE (2800 cal yr BP) to ~1350 CE concurrent with the presence of disturbance indicators. A lack of consensus on identifying the pollen grains (possibly Cucurbita spp., Ipomoea batatas) has made the interpretation of the data inconclusive. Issues around the lack of pollen keys for the Caribbean, in particular for cultigens, as well as a poor understanding of the dispersal of cultigens from their centers of origin (i.e., travel of Cucurbita from Central America to the Caribbean), make interpretation difficult. Pollen analysis can be a powerful tool to support the understanding of Archaic Age societies in Cuba, however more rigorous research on pollen morphology and variations of cultigens is needed.
08:50 AM: Mid-Holocene Human Migration from Central America to Cuba
Author(s):
  • Bill Buhay - University of Winnipeg
  • Matthew Peros - Bishop's University
The geography of the Caribbean, coupled with relatively consistent trade wind circulation, produce very strong contemporary ocean circulation patterns that, from a present day perspective, would seem to have made human marine migration from Central America to the island of Cuba quite challenging during the mid-Holocene. However, increasing evidence suggesting that there was less trade wind driven upwelling and increased instability and westerly wind anomalies (conditions similar to present day El Nino events) within the Caribbean due to a more northerly displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (8000 to 5000 years before present). These different atmosphere-ocean conditions, together with lower sea levels at the time, suggest that a much different Caribbean ocean circulation regime may have existed, one that could have been more conducive to human crossings from the Central American mainland to Cuba. Possible mid-Holocene Caribbean circulation differences (through the use of Search & Rescue Model and Response System software - SARMAP) and evidence supporting the possibility of the start of Human marine migration from Central America to Cuba will be discussed.
09:10 AM: Archaeotoponomastics in the Greater Antilles
Author(s):
  • Ivan Roksandic - University of Winnipeg
Toponyms form a distinct subset of lexical inventory of any language and play an important part in the culture of its speakers. One interesting aspect of toponymy in the Western Caribbean is that a substantial portion of it consists of indigenous place names, in spite of the fact that none of the languages present on the islands prior to European arrival is still spoken there today. Clearly, the corpus of pre-Columbian toponyms in the region represents a store of potential answers – or at least hints – to numerous questions about Caribbean past(s). Nonetheless, it remains largely neglected and understudied; although a number of comprehensive works has been devoted to collecting place names on individual islands, far fewer analytic studies have been accomplished so far. While an important majority of indigenous place names are Taíno, as it was both the dominant language and lingua franca in the region at the time of the initial contact, a number of toponyms display characteristics that are difficult to interpret as such. Identifying areal sets of place names which display recurrent non-Arawak structures, systematic analysis of their morphophonological and lexical characteristics, and their comparison with the linguistic features of relevant language families spoken in the contiguous continental regions, such as Chibchan, Misumalpan, and Warao, can make a significant contribution to our understanding of population groups on the islands in the pre-contact period and of the sources and routes of early migratory movements in the Western Caribbean.
09:30 AM: Ancient DNA preservation in Caribbean human remains
Author(s):
  • Kathrin Nägele - Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Khalaische Strasse 10, 07745 Jena, Germany
  • Cosimo Posth - Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Khalaische Strasse 10, 07745 Jena, Germany
  • Mirjana Roksandic - Department of Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Canada
  • Yadira Chinique de Armas - Department of Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Canada
  • Ulises Gonzales Herrera - Instituto Cubano de Antropologia Amargura No. 203, e/ Habana y Aguiar. La Habana Vieja. C.P. 10100. Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba
  • Hannes Schroeder - Center for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Johannes Krause - Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Khalaische Strasse 10, 07745 Jena, Germany
Whole genome analyses of ancient human remains are providing new insights into the understanding of human population history. The retrieval of ancient DNA (aDNA) is however limited not only by time but also by environmental conditions. While in temperate climate regions, aDNA has shown to survive under ideal conditions since the Pleistocene, tropical climates - such as in the Caribbean region – represent an obstacle for aDNA preservation even from much more recent times. However, the petrous portion of the temporal bone has been shown to yield outstanding preservation allowing the retrieval of aDNA from regions and times previously thought to be inaccessible. Here, we screened for aDNA the petrous portions of two individuals from to the Archaic period excavated at the Playa del Mango site in Cuba. We further performed genome-wide targeted enrichment and compared the resulting data to a recently sequenced 1,000 years old genome of a Taino individual from the Bahamas as well as present-day populations from neighboring regions. Due to the complexity of recent admixture  aDNA can provide useful insights into the peopling of the Caribbean region and the succession of events in its population history.
09:50 AM: Understanding early migrations in the Caribbean
Author(s):
  • Mirjana  Roksandic - University of Winnipeg
The Caribbean is characterised by a diversity of its landscapes, populations and languages. When perceived as a dynamic place of cultural production, it was responding to both the arrivals of new groups and internal developments in a variety of ways that produced novel forms of culture and interaction. We examine the complex issues regarding the peopling of this region, the prevalent ideas about the process, the identity of indigenous groups living on the islands, the possible source areas of incoming migrants, and the chronology of their movements. We focus on the most salient points, as well as on new understandings and insights, and present how the research of our team working in Cuba – specifically at Canímar Abajo site – contributes to these debates. Research on Canímar Abajo has allowed our team to infer the presence of two different populations – with different dietary and cultural practices – synchronously occupying a restricted geographic area in western Cuba. While Canímar Abajo was certainly an important landscape marker for populations living in the region for at least 3000 years, we suspect that it is not unique in its potential to produce unexpected results that require re-examination of our current perceptions. A growing number of systematic analyses of skeletal material from already excavated sites in the Caribbean, stable isotope studies of both dietary practices and migrations, as well as advances in aDNA extraction presented today, allow us to build a more evidence-based picture of the early peopling of the islands.
10:30 AM: Revisiting Cuban Archeology: The Aboriginal Archaeological Heritage in the Canímar River Basin, Matanzas
Author(s):
  • Silvia Teresita Hernandez Godoy - Provincial Department of Culture of Matanzas; University of Matanzas
  • Logel  Lorenzo Hernandez - Museo de la Ruta del Esclavo Castillo de San Severino, Heritage Center of Matanzas
  • Esteban Ruben  Grau González-Quevedo - Fundation Antonio Núñez Jiménez de la Naturaleza y el Hombre
  • Yadira Chinique de Armas - University of Winnipeg
  • Mirjana Roksandic - University of Winnipeg
The Canímar River basin, located on the north coast of the province of Matanzas in Cuba, was a favorable natural scenario for the early human settlement of Cuba. The archaeological sites reported in the sixties of the twentieth century reveal their significance in the archaeological context of the archipelago. The Canímar basin facilitated human access to varied resources of the area and favored the long-term occupation by indigenous communities, as evidenced in the long archaeological record (5500 BC - 1360 B.C.). Previous studies have reported the presence of indigenous groups with low and high levels of productivity. They provided a fragmented view of the archaeology of the region as they were concentrated on individual sites. In this project, we include the whole hydrographic basin as a unit of analysis in order to interpret the material evidences recovered during the fieldwork and examine how they fit in the chrono-spatial network. In this presentation, we provide an update on the archaeological record in the area; analyze the archaeological findings from a regional perspective and evaluate the preservation of archaeological sites. Among the main results are the geographic characterization of the Canímar River basin and the inventory of existing archaeological heritage (sites and collections) and a critical evaluation of previous research. We discuss strategies for the optimization of research in the area and promote dissemination of results and conservation of sites.
10:50 AM: Sociocultural, Economic and Chrono-Spatial Context of the Precolonial Occupation in the Archaeological Area of Playa del Mango, Río Cauto, Southeast Cuba
Author(s):
  • Ulises Miguel Gonzalez Herrera - Cuban Institute of Anthropology
  • Yadira Chinique de Armas - University of Winnipeg
  • Mirjana Roksandic - University of Winnipeg
In this presentation, we summarize preliminary research results from several archaeological field seasons in the lowlands of the Gulf of Guacanayabo (Cuba), and discuss the pattern of aboriginal settlement on the southern slope of the Cauto River Basin. The analysis is based on contrasting the most recent archaeological census conducted in the country with the natural resource structure of this geographical area. Based on the analysis of the spatial use of the site, and the first radiocarbon dates obtained, we can observe an emerging pattern associated with the identified mortuary practices. Based on the available data, we characterize the economic and socio-cultural aspects of the pre-colonial occupation at Playa del Mango. It was possible to confirm a prolonged use of the site with clear vestiges of residential settlements, possibly linked to two occupations of communities of low productive levels that occupied the area between 1800 and 2100 B.P. Based on the analysis of the spatial distribution of the archaeological mounds and the material culture recovered, the indigenous settlement is best understood within the Antillean Banwaroide cultural complex.
11:10 AM: Assessing the Differential Use of Plants among Archaic Age Populations in Cuba
Author(s):
  • Yadira Chinique de Armas - University of Winnipeg
  • Ulises M. González  Herrera - Cuban Institute of Anthropology
  • Roberto Rodríguez  Suarez - Cuban Institute of Anthropology
  • Idalí  Reyes - Cuban Institute of Anthropology
  • Megan Fylik - University of Winnipeg
  • Mirjana Roksandic - University of Winnipeg
Starch and isotopic analyses have changed our understanding of plant management among “fisher-gatherer” indigenous groups in Cuba, traditionally considered as homogeneous populations who depended on natural resources, without management of cultigens. In this paper we examine the subsistence strategies and food consumption patterns of the individuals from Guayabo Blanco, Cueva del Perico I, Cueva Calero, Canímar Abajo and Playa del Mango sites by combining stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) in bone and starch analysis of dental calculus. Results suggest that at least two different food consumption patterns coexisted among “fisher-gathers” in Cuba: one consisting of a mixed diet where C3 and C4 plants were present, including cultigens such as Ipomoea batatas, Phaseolus sp. and Zea mays; while other groups had a diet likely characterized by an exclusive consumption of C3 plants. This evidence demonstrated the differential use and management of plants for indigenous populations from western and eastern Cuba since “Archaic” Age times, as an evidence of the diversity of dietary traditions.

Innovation and Agriculture at the Lockport Site: New Analyses to Re-examine Old Ideas About Pre-contact Farming in Southern Manitoba.

Time: 
08:30 AM to 12:10 PM
Room: 
Ambassador B

Session Details

This session is devoted to sharing the results and insights gained through recent innovative research on the Lockport site (EaLf-1). The Lockport site exhibits the best evidence for maize farming by ancestral Indigenous groups prior to European settlement in Western Canada. Domesticated and local native plant species comprised local subsistence systems. E. Leigh Syms (Curator emeritus, Manitoba Museum) and Coleen Rajotte, noted Cree film producer, initiated a large-scale project to document pre-contact farming practices in southern Manitoba focusing on the Lockport site. To support the documentary, the University of Manitoba ran a field school to collect archaeological and archaeobotanical data. Students gained further experience analyzing artifacts and floral remains through coursework at the University of Manitoba. Researchers at the University of Manitoba and Lakehead University conducted cutting-edge research using biochemical, advance microscopic, and petrographic analyses documenting new and exciting facets of subsistence practices, artifact construction and decision making processes. We invite contributions by researchers and students involved in the project that focus on specific analyses and resulting information, experiences of students- from fieldwork to lab work to participating in a documentary, or research focused on pre-contact farming practices or general lifeways as expressed by materials from the Lockport site.  
Organizer(s): 
  • Sara Halwas Ph.D., University of Manitoba
  • E. Leigh Syms, Ph.D. C.M., Curator Emertitus, Manitoba Museum

Presentations

08:30 AM: Student Perspective on Archaeology in Manitoba: The Lockport Site
Author(s):
  • Amanda Gilmore - University of Manitoba
  • Jodi McKay - University of Manitoba
  • Augustus Ada - University of Manitoba
This presentation aims to focus on the importance of public access to archaeology in Manitoba. From a student perspective, the experience of participating in University level courses (ANTH 3910, 3980, 4760) dedicated to the analysis of the Lockport site (EaLf-1) will be reflected upon, highlighting the values of accessibility to these programs for archaeology students at the undergraduate level. Opportunities for archaeology students to take part in excavations and practicum courses at the undergraduate level are rare in the province of Manitoba, and it has become increasingly expensive for students to gain this vital experience at out of province field schools. The Lockport site is a vital key to discovering and understanding pre-contact Indigenous agricultural practices but holds another invaluable significance to students and the public as a resource for essential archaeological training and an insight into the rich history of local Indigenous communities. As students who have been granted the unique privilege of working at the Lockport site and with its artifacts, we relay our own experiences in relation to our perspectives on archaeology in the academic and public spheres.
08:50 AM: A Lithic Analysis of the Materials from the Lockport Field School, 2016
Author(s):
  • Mark Paxton-MacRae - Agassiz CRS
This presentation consists of a lithic analysis of materials recovered during the 2016 Lockport field school excavation. A qualitative analysis of the complete lithic recoveries was conducted, making special note of tool types and lithic materials by cultural horizon, i.e. Late Woodland, Kenosewan, and a pre-Kenosewan occupation.  An initial assessment of the lithic material shows a high quantity of expedient tools. The only recovered projectile point (Knife River Flint) and a complete Swan River Chert scraper have been biochemically analyzed at Lakehead University (results presented separately). As a compliment to Lakehead University’s biochemical analyses, use-wear analysis will be undertaken on the potential expedient tools to identify marks that may indicate specific cultural activities.
09:10 AM: Pre-Contact Pottery from the 2016 University of Manitoba Field School at the Lockport Site EaLf-01
Author(s):
  • Garth Sutton - Manitoba Archaeological Society
The Lockport Site, situated on the East side of the Red River, north of Winnipeg, is a multi-componant site that has produced a variety of pottery wares belonging to a number of archaological cultures. In 2016, approximately 633 pottery sherds were recovered from 4 different loci across the site. This paper is a preliminary analysis of the pottery recovered looking to identify the number of vessels, the decorative motifs on the rim sherds and the surface finish on the body sherds. The archaeological culture will be assigned to the cultural horizon that has been established at the site in order to determine occupation. Early initial assessment of the pottery recovered has revealed the possible presence of a ceremonial pot inferred from the recovery of a small, highly decorated rim sherd.
09:30 AM: The provenience of pre-contact pottery from the Lockport site (EaLf-1): Preliminary results of optical petrographic analysis
Author(s):
  • Kent Fowler - Anthropology, University of Manitoba
  • Brandi Shabaga - Geological Sciences, University of Manitoba
One of the aims of the recent 2016 excavations at the Lockport site (EaLf-1) in south-central Manitoba was to showcase the significance and importance of advanced material culture analyses for understanding past life ways. To this end, the excavators submitted a sample of pottery sherds for provenience analysis. Optical petrographic analysis identified three petrofabric groups in a sample of a dozen sherds. Group A has a mineral composition consistent with the transitional neoArchaen-Archaean geology east of Lockport between the Red River and Winnipeg River. Group B samples have a mineralogical profile characteristic of mafic and ultramafic terrane along the Winnipeg River system further east into the boreal forest. Group C has a complex mineralogy that sees a mix of materials derived from both the limestones and dolomites of the Red River Formation and asbestos-form materials that occur in mafic (basaltic) geologies of Archaean age in the boreal forest to the east. Group C is a possible example of clay mixing from both local and eastern clay sources. Based upon these preliminary mineralogical identifications, it would be difficult to conclude that pottery at Lockport was made exclusively using local clays. Rather the mineralogical data provide an independent line of evidence connecting the plains and boreal forest zones. This study also raises an important question about the cultural significance of clay beyond its physical properties. Currently, Laser Ablation ICP-MS analyses are being conducted to refine the provenience determinations based upon the mineralogical study.
09:50 AM: Going Local: Using Native Plant species to Uncover site use at Lockport (EaLf-1)
Author(s):
  • Sara Halwas - University of Manitoba
I was invited to participate in the Lockport excavations in 2016 to collect and process soil samples for ancient seed, fruit and other plant remains to examine plant taxa used by past First Nations people. As part of the Botanical Analysis course offered by the University of Manitoba, students processed soil samples collected from Late Woodland and Kenosewun (Late Plains Woodland) contexts. The Kenosewun levels produced the majority of plant remains. While no domesticated species were recovered, saskatoons, raspberries, wild cherries, hazelnuts, chenopod and mint seeds and fruits support previous research that many local native plants were used along side domesticated maize and beans. Additionally, plant remains were concentrated into single excavation units in two separate excavation blocks. In these two locations, the ephemeral soil changes and artifacts concentrations suggested the possibility of hearths, where people would have processed or cooked food. Recovery of carbonized seed and fruit remains from soil samples collected from these locations supports this interpretation. This is important as examining all types of evidence, whether ancient cooking pots, stone tools or the remains of the plants people used, can reveal a wider understanding of ancient First Nations traditional activities.
10:30 AM: Archaeology of the Invisible: An Example from the Lockport Site, Manitoba
Author(s):
  • Clarence Surette - Lakehead University
  • Jennifer  Surette - Lakehead University
  • Kayleigh Speirs - Lakehead University
  • Stefan  Bouchard - Lakehead University
  • Carney Matheson - Lakehead University
  • Zebedee Kawei - Lakehead University
  • E. Leigh Syms - Manitoba Museum
In order to gain additional insight from excavations at the Lockport site (EaLf-1) during the 2016 field season, selected artifacts and soil samples were submitted to Lakehead University for analyses. These items included pottery sherds, stone tools and soil from a feature. To recover the maximum information possible, several techniques were employed when examining each specimen. This multi-proxy approach allowed for the recovery of macro-and-micro botanical remains, bones, hairs, feathers, carbohydrates, proteins, and fatty acids. As evident from these analyses, people at the Lockport site were utilizing numerous sources of food, including plants and animals, as well as domesticated products such as maize, which can be missed through conventional archaeological methods. These results indicate that only by combining multiple methods and using multi-proxy approaches can one start to fully decipher what food substances were available to people during the ancient past.
10:50 AM: The Lockport Site (EaLf-1), Manitoba: Past, Present, and Future
Author(s):
  • E. Leigh Syms - Manitoba Museum
The Lockport Site has played a long but intermittent role in the development of the understanding of early First Nations developments in Western Canada. After initial development in the 1950s of the definitive regional chronology for eastern Manitoba and adjacent regions for several decades, its importance diminished. In the mid-1980s it was a major focus for 4 years of extensive excavation in which a large body of detailed data was recovered, including the use of then new techniques such as water flotation. Several detailed professional articles were published in the journal of the Manitoba Archaeological Society. This information was known by relatively small numbers and soon disappeared from much of public awareness. In 2014 a project was initiated by Syms and Coleen Rajotte, a First Nations film producer, to produce a public TV documentary on First Nations cultivation that included state of the art research techniques such as phytolith and starch grain analyses, and microscopy as well as SEM, GC-MS and FTIR work. These included a new focus on microscopic analyses and a focus on plant remains, resulting in an increased focus on the roles of First Nations women. Is this a new era of the adoption of new techniques?
11:10 AM: Documentary Film Screening: Mysteries Beneath: The Story of First Nations Farmers
Author(s):
Produced by Coleen Rajotte, First Nations film producer.

Moving Forward while Looking Back: How Archaeological Organizations are Responding to Reconciliation

Time: 
09:10 AM to 11:10 AM
Room: 
Ambassador D

Session Details

Today, most territories and provinces have some type of membership based organization that functions to further the discipline and bring people together with an interest (avocational and/or professional) in archaeology. These organizations have a long history in our country and sometimes played a pivotal role in the emergence of a "Canadian Archaeology". A reality is that most of Canadian Archaeology is based on the material cultural of Indigenous peoples, yet many organizations have not always included Indigenous voices and perspectives. This session is an exploration of how organizations like these are responding to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada's Calls to Action, and provides a venue to discuss some of the current challenges and opportunities faced by these important but often under-funded organizations.
Organizer(s): 
  • Amber Zimmerman-Flett (President, Manitoba Archaeological Society)
  • Tomasin Playford (Executive Director, Saskatchewan Archaeological Society)

Presentations

09:10 AM: Walking together: Finding new pathways for the Ontario Archaeological Society
Author(s):
  • Alicia Hawkins - Ontario Archaeological Society
  • Paul Racher - Ontario Archaeological Society
What roles do provincial archaeological societies have in reconciliation? As a relatively old society with a diverse membership base, the answer to this question may not be obvious for the Ontario Archaeoogical Society. Past President Paul Racher (2016-2017) rightly recognized that the Calls to Action of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People have significant implications for the practice of archaeology. At our 2017 symposium, From Truth to Reconciliation, we explored, together with the participants from First Nations across Ontario the part that the OAS could play. We recently revised our constitution and statement of ethical principles so that they are in alignment with the TRC and UNDRIP. But what will this mean “on the ground”? In this paper we provide a summary of recent work and a discussion of projects that are under development.
09:30 AM: Backdirt and Bureaucracy Revisited: The APANB and Archaeological Practice in New Brunswick
Author(s):
  • Darcy J.  Dignam - Association of Professional Archaeologists of New Brunswick Ltd.
  • David W.  Black - Association of Professional Archaeologists of New Brunswick Ltd.
  • Trevor Dow - Association of Professional Archaeologists of New Brunswick Ltd.
  • Kenneth Holyoke - Association of Professional Archaeologists of New Brunswick Ltd.
  • M. Gabriel  Hrynick - Association of Professional Archaeologists of New Brunswick Ltd.
Historically, across Canada, the role of provincial governments in archaeology has been to regulate archaeological activities. Just over 40 years ago, upon the formation of the “Archaeology Branch” of the New Brunswick Historical Resources Administration, New Brunswick’s first provincial archaeologist, Christopher Turnbull, stated that “archaeology has entered, in a small way, the political arena” (Turnbull 1977:120), and these words now seem prescient in today’s pervasively political climate. Since the creation of the New Brunswick Clean Environment Act in 1987 and the subsequent creation of an archaeology industry pertaining to environmental impact assessment-related work (Cultural Resource Management), there has been a dramatic shift in the character of research conducted in archaeology. In a discipline now overwhelmingly populated by consulting archaeologists—an industry the New Brunswick government’s Archaeological Services Branch now both participates in and regulates—the impetus grew to develop an extra-governmental forum in which the professional archaeological community could discuss and assess issues in the practice of archaeology in New Brunswick. It was in this “spirit of brotherly watchfulness” (Turnbull 1977:119) that the Association of Professional Archaeologists of New Brunswick (APANB) was formed in 2013. In this presentation we provide a brief history of the APANB, summarize its objectives, and consider the challenges it faces—as well as the challenges similar Canadian organizations may face—in the current archaeological milieu.
09:50 AM: Archaeology from the other side: perspective from a municipal Archaeologist
Author(s):
  • Laureen Bryant - City of Calgary
In response to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission Calls to Action, the Calgary Aboriginal Urban Affairs Committee (CAUAC) provided Calgary City Council with the White Goose Flying report to identify which of the 94 Calls to Action are actionable by Calgary's municipal government.  Specific recommendations for archaeology and those sites on city owned land were highlighted.  Part of The City's response to the recommendations was the establishment of a 'City' Archaeologist position.  As that Archaeologist, within the Cultural Landscape portfolio (Calgary Parks), my role includes the identification, conservation, management, and celebration of the thousands of years of Indigenous occupation on the Calgary Landscape.  To facilitate this, increasing internal and external awareness is key for people to understand, value, acknowledge, and respect Indigenous archaeological sites.  This presentation will focus on why the role is valuable within the municipality, some of the opportunities and challenges I have observed, and will end with the summary of a recent decision by Alberta Culture and Tourism to preserve a portion of the St. Dunstan's Industrial school and what that means for the municipality. 
10:30 AM: Results from the Brazeau Archaeological Project - 2015 and 2016
Author(s):
  • Madeline Coleman - Tree Time Services Inc.
  • Amandah van Merlin - Royal Alberta Museum
The Archaeologcial Society of Alberta – Edmonton Centre has been conducting a public survey project at the Brazeau Reservoir, since in 2015.  We've had excellent turn-out and have helped push back our understanding of history in the Ice-free Corridor. The survey has resulted in the identification of 5 new archaeological sites around the reservoir, and finds that span from the time of the Ice Free Corridor to the Middle/Late Precontact transition.  Results of the 2015 and 2016 surveys have been analyzed together and are presented here, along with future directions.
10:50 AM: Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Management on Saba, Dutch Caribbean: Navigating Culture and Politics
Author(s):
  • Ryan Espersen - Saba Archaeological Center
The Saba Archaeological Center (SABARC) is a non-profit organization based upon the island of Saba, Dutch Caribbean, dedicated to preserving and promoting Saba's cultural heritage through archaeological research and outreach initiatives. SABARC actively seeks to involve local residents in areas of archaeological research. This provides hands-on exposure and experience in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities, and allows them to participate in the discovery of their own history. SABARC staff also conduct Malta-compliant small scale archaeological mitigation projects when necessary, and has an MOU with the Island Government as the body responsible for curating the island's tangible cultural heritage.  On Saba, however, there is no legislation that effectively governs how cultural heritage is managed, or especially protected and mitigated in the face of development.  The status of Saba as a "public entity" of the Netherlands, together with Bonaire and St. Eustatius, is also ill defined legally, and the definition of their relationship to the Netherlands is still being debated in federal politics.  This creates a challenging work environment with a grey legal framework that requires public outreach to be at the fore of archaeological work and mitigation in order to maintain relevance to both the government and community.

Where the Spirit Resides in Northern Prehistory

Time: 
09:10 AM to 12:10 PM
Room: 
Ambassador H

Session Details

There has been a long interest in understanding the workings of non-human agency in anthropology, from early debates about animism and totemism to more recent archaeological theorizing about “things.” The topic remains pertinent because many cultures do not narrowly demarcate between inanimate and animate, natural and supernatural, the physical and the spiritual. This is certainly true for the native inhabitants of subarctic and arctic North America, who shared a landscape with non-human persons, spirits, and animate objects for millennia. This session offers case studies and theoretical papers that identify and examine the entangled relations between people and these non-humans in the archaeological record. Papers are welcomed that explore these relationships wherever they occur: on the landscape, in hunting and gathering, food preparation, consumption, and discard, the crafting and use of technology, settlement and household organization, caching, burial, and ritual.
Organizer(s): 
  • Donald H. Holly Jr., Eastern Illinois University & Memorial University

Presentations

09:10 AM: Perspectivism in Innu archaeology, or the magical realism of the Innu world.
Author(s):
  • Chelsee Arbour - Memorial University of Newfoundland
  • Anthony Jenkinson - Tshikapisk Foundation
The Innu of nitassinan, a territory which includes most of Québec and Labrador, have lived in this immense peninsula for 9000 years. This is testified to by oral histories within contemporary generational memory, Innu atanukana (parables containing collective memories of the deep past and interactions with both vanished pleistocene megafauna and supernatural beings) and archaeology. Despite drastic changes to Innu life-ways following government sponsored sedentarization and compulsory Western schooling, there remain tangible links between Innu people, their ancestors, and other-than-human beings – such as the guardian deities of the animals and other supernatural beings in nutshimit (the country). Such connections suggest that components of a relational ontology are woven into Innu life-ways, where both human and other-than-human beings are imbued with spirit, and their interactions are governed by protocols of proper behaviour and respect. There is also evidence to suggest metaphysical continuity between Innu and certain animals in nutshimit; the Kauatikamapeu atanukan (the boy who married a caribou), for example, exemplifies this as well as caribou-Innu reciprocity. We argue that this relationality forms part of the magical realism of the Innu world, which in itself resists binary categorization as secular or sacred. Otherwise prosaic chores, such as cleaning, processing and disposing of animal remains, thus acquire and are invested with spiritual power tied to the daily maintenance of human and other-than-human reciprocal relationships in nutshimit. We offer two archaeological cases which demonstrate that approaching the archaeological record from this stance can provide a fresh interpretive lens to the study of Innu history and the deep past of nitassinan.
09:30 AM: From Inngerutit to Erinarsuutit and Back: Drums and Transformation in Arctic North America and Greenland
Author(s):
  • Christopher Wolff - University at Albany
  • Kirstine Eiby Møller - Greenland National Museum
There is no more powerful symbol for where the spirit resides among Arctic cultures of North America and Greenland than the drum. It embodies many aspects of individuals and society and, in turn, is often thought to possess its own spirit, or one shared with its bearer. The archaeological record has revealed many examples of Arctic drums, dating back to over 1,000 years, testifying to a history of importance that continues today. There is archaeological evidence that they were used as elements in shamanic transformations, suggesting they were key components of spiritual interaction with various non-human entities. There is also much to suggest that the design and use of drums has undergone significant transformation through processes of cultural interaction and European assimilation efforts, including sometimes their destruction as symbols of ties to ancient animistic and non-Christian belief systems. This paper will discuss some examples of Arctic drums and their use from the past and present with a focus on their role in the spiritual transformation of people and culture.
09:50 AM: Soul Food: social and spiritual dimensions of food in Newfoundland Prehistory
Author(s):
  • Donald  Holly - Eastern Illinois University
The archaeology of hunters and gatherers has long focused on food, particularly subsistence strategies and related technological matters, such as the procurement of animals for their skins, fur, bones, and sinew. In marginal environments especially, like the eastern subarctic of North America, these pursuits are frequently situated within an adaptationist calculus that emphasizes caloric efficiency and environmental accommodation. Social and cultural considerations, however, clearly informed subsistence matters too. Drawing on the later pre/historic archaeological record of the island of Newfoundland, it is suggested that subsistence strategies and food conveyed identity, reflected unfolding historical conditions and social relations, factored into ritual and ceremonial practice, and embodied cultural worldviews.
10:30 AM: Man8gemasak
Author(s):
  • Geneviève Treyvaud - Grand Conseil de la Nation Waban-Aki
  • Suzie O'Bomsawin - Grand Conseil de la Nation Waban-Aki
  • David Bernard - Grand Conseil de la Nation Waban-Aki
Archaeological diggings carried out since 2010 on Ndakinna, the ancestral W8banaki territory, revealed thousands of artefacts among which many symbolic representations. The W8banakiak have device their spirituality on principles based on the existence of links between Mother Earth and all forms of life there. Man8gemasak are the representatives of his links. Engraved on clay concretions or slate and buried in pits, these "little creatures of the forest" are still very present to day in the W8banakiak's. We present the result of a study where archaeologists, anthropologists, artists and members of the W8banaki community joined their knowledges to identify the symbols and identity of these supernatural representatives.
10:50 AM: An aide-mémoire? Interpreting an Inuit carving of an early European vessel
Author(s):
  • Karen Ryan - Canadian Museum of History
This year’s conference emphasises the increasingly collaborative nature of Canadian archaeology – the need to include Indigenous knowledge, recognise multiple ways of knowing, and examine connections between different populations. Considering diverse perspectives when interpreting the archaeological past is critical because, as this session highlights, it can allow “things” to be understood beyond strict oppositional structures of physical / spiritual or natural / supernatural. This presentation focuses on a single carving found at an Inuit site on the south coast of Baffin Island. Although its overall form clearly evokes an early European-style ship, particular features suggest that the carving is also a multilayered and “entangled” depiction of something inherently alien to Inuit culture. Inuit oral histories preserving details of some of the earliest Europeans to sail into the Arctic bolster this interpretation. Those accounts suggest that the carving may be a physical representation of how an Inuit craftsperson, through the lens of their own ideology and history, represented European contact.
11:10 AM: Variability in the Kapuivik Subsistence Economy: A Faunal Analysis of Pre-Dorset and Dorset occupations on Jens Munk Island, Nunavut.
Author(s):
  • Kathryn Kotar - McGill University
This paper presents a detailed analysis of animal bones from Pre-Dorset and Dorset dwellings at the Kapuivik archaeological site, Nunavut. Kapuivik is central to the Paleo-Inuit “core area” of Foxe Basin and played a large role in Jørgen Meldgaard’s study of the Pre-Dorset to Dorset transition. In summer 2016, we began new excavations at the site, targeting Meldgaard’s transitional levels, and recovered a wealth of faunal remains and organic artifacts from both Paleo-Inuit periods. I will discuss observed subsistence strategies and seasonality at the dwellings to examine human and non-human animal interactions through time and across seasons. Additionally, the increased exploitation of walrus and their ivory during the Dorset period offers a unique glance at their relationship with the non-human world, especially as we recovered several animal effigies made from walrus ivory that represent species at Kapuivik. Thus, this project explores variability between Pre-Dorset and Dorset hunting and gathering, food preparation and discard, their use of organic material, as well as informs our upcoming excavations at Kapuivik in summer 2018.
11:30 AM: Painted dreams and entangled realities: caribou hide garments from the eastern Subarctic
Author(s):
  • Moira McCaffrey - Independent Researcher
Historic caribou hide garments from the eastern Subarctic are beautiful and evocative objects. Surviving coats are few in number and scattered in museums across the globe. Their tailored designs and elaborate painted motifs stand in stark contrast to perceptions of past life in the North. While speculations abound on the cosmologies embodied in these garments, cultural attributions have tended to be both arbitrary and simplistic. This presentation places painted caribou hide clothing in a much broader social and chronological framework, integrating new archaeological understandings, ethnohistoric accounts, oral traditions, as well as museum and community explorations. From the rich overlap of these sources emerges a complex story. It is one dominated by encounters, entanglements, and negotiations that take place within human, animal, and spirit worlds.
11:50 AM: Spiritually animated Cultural Landscapes: Integrating sacred places and other intangible heritage values into archaeological impact assessment.
Author(s):
  • Scott Hamilton - Lakehead University
Since the 1970s heritage has become part of Environmental Impact Assessment, and strongly condition how archaeological and other heritage sites are identified, valued and protected. Reflecting the dominant mindset of both archaeologists and regulators, this tends to focus upon the tangible- places and objects that are empirically measurable. But over the past 20 years, transformation has begun in light of the Crown’s ‘Duty to Consult and Accommodate’ Indigenous concerns. While not yet clearly articulated within regulatory structures, some First Nations are insisting that ‘intangible’ aspects of cultural heritage be part of discourse over proposed development.  This paper offers examples from northern Ontario about spiritually mediated ‘cultural landscapes’, and the challenges how to address such ‘values’.

Historicizing the Present: Canadian Perspectives in Late Historical and Contemporary Archaeology

Time: 
01:30 PM to 02:50 PM
Room: 
Ambassador D

Session Details

With increasing archaeological interest in the recent past, the archaeology of the contemporary world has developed in recent years into a legitimate subfield of archaeology which seeks to develop a material understanding of the sociopolitical and economic history of the late 20th and early 21st century. Themes such as social housing, homelessness, poverty, and exclusion, which disproportionately affect First Nations people in Canada, have emerged as particularly salient; the field also provides a unique context for thinking about heritage policies, migration, tourism, public and collaborative projects, centered on the relationship of contemporaneity between the archaeologist and her or his research community. For this session, we would like to extend an invitation to contemporary archaeologists working creatively on a Canadian topic or from a Canadian institution. Our focus is on the period between the end of the Second World War and the present, and particularly on the impact of the welfare state and subsequent rise of neoliberalism on the wellbeing of contemporary societies, and especially First Nations groups. Papers focusing on earlier topics that bear on the recent past and the present are welcome.
Organizer(s): 
  • Paulina Scheck (paulina.scheck@mail.utoronto.ca), University of Toronto
  • Francisco Rivera Amaro (f.riveraamaro@gmail.com), Université de Montréal

Presentations

01:30 PM: Mines of Information: Recent Industrial Archaeology Projects in the Northwest Territories
Author(s):
  • David Finch - Mackenzie Valley Land and Water Board
  • Ryan Silke - Yellowknife Historical Society
The Northwest Territories has been investigated for potential mineral resources since the 1700s. Its contemporary settler history was strongly driven by mineral extraction, with major strikes made across the north in the early 20th Century. Despite the significance of mining to territorial history and economy, the archaeological investigation of mining sites is infrequent. Few of these locations are Bordenized, much less recognized. This is due partly to the priority of remediation concerns but also likely due to the deprioritization of settler history as the territorial narrative is redefined. Nonetheless, the Northwest Territories is dotted with hundreds of locations that offer insights into the early modern industrial, commercial, and social transformation of the territory.   This presentation outlines mining-related archaeological investigations in the Northwest Territories over the past decade. It focuses on two sites in the territory’s South Slave region, the Pine Point Base Camp (JfPo-1) and the Genx Prospector Cabin (JfPo-2). Both sites relate to lead and zinc mining operations near the former community of Pine Point, with occupations spanning the years 1928 to 1951. Comment is made on the scale and nature of development, and on the environmental and social legacy of mining in the region. Lastly the paper describes the ongoing registration and recognition of industrial archaeological sites in the Northwest Territories.
01:50 PM: Odonyms, art, and the public memory of political violence: an archaeological approach to urban contemporary materiality
Author(s):
  • Francisco Rivera - Université de Montréal
This paper approaches urban contemporary materiality from an archaeological perspective. Canadian urban odonyms and public art referring to the Chilean dictatorship (1973-1990), are contemporary materialities that can reflect a city’s cultural and symbolic landscapes, as the materialization of intercultural relations. An archaeological reading of this urban cultural landscape therefore supports an understanding of contemporary materiality, not as an isolated artifact, but as part of a larger set of symbolic and intersubjective elements. I will explore this hypothesis: odonyms and public art that commemorate an important episode of Chilean history are "artefacts" that open a symbolic healing space for exiled Chileans in Canada. They are part of a cultural landscape that offers meaning to the experience of exile. How does contemporary materiality connect and contribute to the formation of a foreign community in a new urban environment? Contemporary materiality, as it is addressed here, is not only based on memory monumentalizing of past political references within odonyms or public art. Rather, contemporary materiality is based on the political and social relations that are established between people and symbolic landscapes in the present. An archaeological approach can help us understand these spaces and symbolic landscapes as results of different temporalities that survive in today's Canadian territory. Not only do they contribute to define the social space, they are also fundamental elements for thinking about the future.  
02:10 PM: After Closing Time: Archaeology of Honest Ed’s Display Window
Author(s):
  • Paulina  Scheck - University of Toronto
Honest Ed’s was a landmark bargain store in downtown Toronto between 1948 and 2016. Although it was never listed, the store had an unofficial designation as a heritage site, broadly connected to the quirky entrepreneurship and inclusive values of its founder, Ed Mirvish, and the immigrant families that formed its clientele, which was incorporated into the proposed development. Following a much-publicized closing date, with requisite tributes paid by city authorities, sales and a neighborhood party in the spirit of its founder, the building remained locked down for almost a year. This paper concerns the period when Honest Ed’s functioned as an urban ruin, in the middle of a trendy Toronto neighborhood. During this time, the building was regularly surveyed and photographed, and emphasis was placed on the display window’s transformation from a commodity space – one associated with kitsch and spectacle – to a public canvas for urban art, and impromptu community message board. Archaeology is used to create a narrative that bridges the divide between Honest Ed’s days as a store and its ruin phase. Changes to the materiality of the site caused by ruination create a new regime of visuality, where the values associated with Honest Ed’s are further elaborated, but ruination also captures emergent relationships and community values. Connections between the store’s migrant heritage and present concerns with gentrification, the Trump age and Canada’s attitude towards indigenous people, evident in the messages left on Honest Ed’s windows, are explored and a holistic heritage framework is proposed.
02:30 PM: A Fostering Environment: A Discussion of Child Rearing at a Mennonite Homestead
Author(s):
  • Teresa Wight - MA Candidate, University of Saskatchewan
Remnants of a Mennonite homestead near Aberdeen, Saskatchewan, inhabited by two different Mennonite families between 1904-1936, allow an opportunity to look at this ethno-religious group through their material possessions. One of the most important aspects of a household is the raising of children. Child rearing can typically only be studied indirectly through the archaeological record. Within the artifact assemblage from the Mennonite homestead, there is a small collection of children’s toys which suggests the teaching of societal roles. Another Mennonite homestead also has children’s toys in the artifact assemblage that will be compared and discussed. Few archaeological studies on raising children have been carried out in Historical Archaeology, therefore this talk will address a gap within the field. The discussion will be supplemented by anthropological theory and a historical examination of child rearing within a Mennonite context.

Western Canadian Archaeology

Time: 
01:30 PM to 03:30 PM
Room: 
Terrace East

Presentations

01:30 PM: Forest Gardens in British Columbia
Author(s):
  • Chelsey Geralda Armstrong - National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institute
Globally, archaeological sites are associated with plant communities that reflect both the ecological and cultural legacies of a landscape where people introduced, managed, consumed, and disposed of important plants. This paper introduces the concept of “forest gardens” as anthropogenically altered ecosystems that continue to grow at large archaeological village settlements in British Columbia. Forest gardens are the legacies of Indigenous management systems that are composed of fruit and nut trees and shrubs, and herbaceous medicinal and root food plants. Using historical-ecological methods and collaborative approaches, forest gardens are presented as important food and medicine stores in the past. Furthermore, they continue to provide a suite of ecological services and functions in present.
01:50 PM: Laframboise’s Coulee?: Exploring the Métis cultural experience in the Cypress Hills though historical archaeology at the Chimney Coulee site
Author(s):
  • Eric Tebby - University of Alberta
The 1870s bore witness to major migrations of Métis families into areas surrounding the Cypress Hills along the last bison frontier. One such area was at the Chimney Coulee Site (DjOe-6), now a designated Provincial Historic Site approximately six kilometers north of Eastend, Saskatchewan. The history surrounding the site has been mainly concerned with the Euro-Canadian narrative regarding the temporary occupation of Hudson’s Bay Company trader Isaac Cowie in 1871-1872 and later the North West Mounted Police in the late 1870s and early 1880s. Widely accepted historically, a significant Métis hivernant (wintering) presence existed at this site during the 1870s and early 1880s. Previous excavations in the 1990s focused on the activities of Isaac Cowie, while the Métis narrative remained largely unknown. Historical archaeology has greatly aided in renewed investigations into the Métis experience at Chimney Coulee.  Excavations conducted in summer 2017 on a cabin feature at this site revealed artifacts which strongly resemble the cultural footprint of other hivernant sites in the Canadian West. Discoveries include various 19th century ceramics, coloured glass seed beads, and domestic artifacts alongside other unique finds. An exquisite piece of beaded garment was also successfully recovered. Contextualizing the site to other hivernant sites around the Cypress Hills from a historical perspective has revealed numerous inaccuracies regarding the demographics of this site and principal occupation. New data surrounding a Métis presence and history in this area has greatly expanded our knowledge of this site and woven together the families and individuals with the material remains.
02:10 PM: Craigsford Complex; New finds from West Central Manitoba.
Author(s):
  • Gary Wowchuk - Mountain Quota Holders Association
Archaeological investigations began at the Craigsford locality in 1965 when a local avocational archaeologist Ed Dobbyn contacted members of the Lake Agassiz Survey and reported finding quantities of lithic debitage, pre-contact pottery and faunal material that had been exposed during the construction of a cement bridge across the Swan River east of Bowsman Manitoba. Archaeological investigations conducted at the Craigsford locality then and at various times since have resulted in the collection of a large amount of data which was used to define the Craigsford Complex (Identifying New Late-Woodland Ceramic Traditions in The Swan Valley, Western Manitoba. By Syms, Dedi, Wowchuk, Speirs, Broadhurst Manitoba Archaeological Journal Vol. 24, No. 1 & 2, 2014.). Since then two new sites, the Klatt and Peyton sites, containing artifact assemblages consistent with that of the “Craigsford Complex” have come to light.
02:30 PM: A Comparison of the 2017 Excavations of Two Bison Kill Areas at the Junction Site (DkPi-2)
Author(s):
  • Janet Blakey - Lifeways of Canada
  • Brian Vivian - Lifeways of Canada
Excavations at the Junction Site (DkPi-2), located in southern Alberta, have revealed a large and geographically complex site with repeated occupations taking place over the last 1000 years. Lifeways of Canada recently undertook excavations at two of the bison kill areas identified at the site. This presentation will focus on the results of these excavations and their importance in our understanding and interpretations of the site.  These excavations along with previous excavations at the Junction Site continue to expand our understanding of the significance of the Junction site as a location within the Blackfoot world of southern Alberta.
02:50 PM: Theft, Reciprocity and Material Entanglements of the Fur Trade at a Housepit Site in Central British Columbia
Author(s):
  • Paul Prince - MacEwan University
Fur Trader Daniel Williams Harmon reported in his journal that he was robbed at Fraser Lake Post in 1811.  He retrieved his articles, with the help of informants, from some people living nearby in a pithouse, but gave little consideration to the motives of anyone involved.  To Harmon the incident seemed merely to be expected of a “Rascal”, and to have been mediated by his more rational peers who feared the trader’s threats of punishment.  Two hundred years later, my excavations in a housepit near to this post have yielded a small assemblage of lithics, bone and fur trade goods.  I explore the assemblage and historical records here for an understanding of the motives and expectations of those engaged in fur trade relationships and interactions, like the events described by Harmon, and the role that material objects may have played.  I argue the introduced objects themselves cannot be understood as either simply functionally advantageous, or prestigious, and they thus did not create relationships of dependency between Indigenous people and fur traders.  Instead, the artifacts encapsulated and enacted growing social and material entanglements rooted in principles of reciprocity, even when not recognized by the European traders.
03:10 PM: The distribution of Surface Collected Early Pre Contact Diagnostic Material from West Central Manitoba
Author(s):
  • Gary Wowchuk - Mountain Quota Holders Association
A large sample of Early pre-contact diagnostic stone tools has been recovered through surface collecting in the west central region of Manitoba by both avocational and professional archaeologists over the last 50 years. This material consists of artifacts sharing diagnostics traits consistent with fluted/basely thinned points, Goshen, Agate Basin, Cody Complex and late generalized lanceolate points manufactured form both local and non-local lithic materials. The area provides us with a unique opportunity to compare the distribution of various early projectile point styles with a series of the fossil beach deposits formed by glacial Lake Agassiz. Of special interest are the Upper and Lower Campbell strandlines, which can easily be traced through the whole study area and used as a relative dating method. The resulting distributions of these diagnostic types confirm earlier observations showing fluted/basely thinned, Goshen and Cody Complex material occurring above these higher Lake Agassiz beach levels whereas the distribution of Agate Basin/ generalized lanceolate points might not be quite as clear calling for us to be more careful in assigning undated late Paleo-Indian projectile points in this part of the northern plains.