QC 2019 CAA/AAQ

Conjoint Annual Meetings of the CAA & AAQ: Québec May 15–18, 2019

2019 Conference Sessions and Abstracts

Organizer(s): 
  • Geneviève Treyvaud, Grand Conseil de la Nation Waban-Aki et INRS-ETE;
  • Réginald Auger, Laboratoires d'archéologie de l'Université Laval;
  • Denis Laurendeau, Département de génie électrique et de génie informatique, Université Laval

Session Abstract

La tomodensitométrie, la réalité virtuelle et la réalité augmentée forment un ensemble de méthodes permettant d’identifier et de caractériser le mobilier archéologique quel que soit le matériau, y compris ceux altérés (mobilier métallique oxydé), composites (objets manufacturés) ou agrégés (urnes funéraires, dépôt), mais également des blocs de sédiments provenant de la stratigraphie de sites archéologiques. Les données obtenues par tomodensitométrie, photogrammétrie et lasergrammétrie sont ensuite utilisées pour la caractérisation des matériaux mais aussi pour cibler des prélèvements ou élaborer des reconstructions en 3D et en réalité virtuelle. Cette méthode d’analyse non destructive de la matière au cœur de l’objet fournit des paramètres qualitatifs et quantitatifs sur les matériaux utilisés afin de définir et d’en comprendre les structures internes.
L’atelier de travail que nous proposons a pour objectif de faire le point sur l’utilisation de ces méthodes. L’atelier se déroulera au laboratoire de Vision et de Systèmes Numériques de l’Université Laval en collaboration avec les membres du projet INTROSPECT (http://introspect.info), une collaboration entre l’Université Rennes 1 et l’Université Laval. Le nombre de places est limité à 12 personnes.

Organizer(s): 
  • Chelsea Meloche, Simon Fraser University.
  • Erin Hogg, Simon Fraser University.

Session Abstract

Archaeology has changed drastically in recent decades. As the latest CAA meetings have shown, conversations have shifted. The theory wars and repatriation debates of the late-twentieth century have mostly quieted and working by, with, and for local and descendant communities is now the norm. UNDRIP and other legislative developments have ensured that a whole generation of archaeologists has been trained in collaborative practices. However, while graduate students and junior scholars are undertaking novel research with communities, they are often underrepresented in disciplinary dialogues on such topics. In this session, we explore examples of engaged practice from graduate students and junior scholars to highlight the voices of the next generation.

Presentations

Archaeological Remote Sensing as Engaged Practice
Author(s):
  • William Wadsworth - University of Alberta

Geophysics and remote sensing technologies are commonly incorporated within the archaeologist’s toolkit. In practice, these surveys are typically implemented after or without community consultation, limiting the depth of knowledge achieved by these efforts. I will discuss why these techniques have increased in popularity within Canadian Archaeology, and how they might be used in community driven practice. Geophysical surveys from different regions and communities will be used to illustrate this point. Finally, I will briefly discuss the significance of incorporating these techniques into future heritage management strategies in light of a post-TRC archaeology and decolonization. 

Digital representation of Inuvialuit Traditional Knowledge: A case study in community engagement using Google Earth
Author(s):
  • Jeff Grieve - Western University

Many indigenous communities are increasingly concerned about the preservation and sharing of their traditional knowledge and cultural heritage.  The pervasiveness of the internet, social media, and other mobile technologies has created new opportunities for Indigenous communities, Archaeologists, heritage groups, and other technology professionals to collaborate with and together on digital strategies to address these challenges.  However, context specific approaches are required when using these methods because every Indigenous community has a unique history and world view. 

The Inuvialuit Living History project is a community based collaborative archaeology initiative that brings together Inuvialuit knowledge holders, archaeologists, and other heritage specialists to identify new culturally appropriate ways to create, document, and disseminate Inuvialuit traditional knowledge and cultural heritage in the digital realm.  The Inuvialuit are the Inuit people of the Western Arctic and their traditional knowledge is tightly coupled with daily  hunting, fishing, and living activities on their lands.   Because of these connections, an interactive Google Earth map has the potential to digitally represent Inuvialuit traditional knowledge in a way that uniquely aligns with their epistemology and worldviews.   However, careful consideration must be given to the design of such a map to avoid distortion and other unintentional consequences that could result from using technology to properly convey the nuances and complexities of Inuvialuit culture.   This oral paper will discuss the effectiveness, benefits, and implications of using a Google Earth map for the preservation and intergenerational sharing of Inuvialuit traditional knowledge, archaeological history, and cultural heritage.    

Frontier Inversion: Engaged Practice Innovation within Commercial Archaeology
Author(s):
  • Josh Dent - Timmins Martelle Heritage Consultants

The primary perceived driver of engaged practice in archaeology has traditionally been academia, however a big part of the future progression of engaged practice now resides in non-academic sectors including commercial heritage practice and in Descendant communities themselves. Emerging scholars and graduate students are increasingly familiar with commercial archaeology with many participating in the practice before, during and, for most, after their studies. Whether through their own initiatives or in collaboration with existing companies with similar philosophies, the participatory discourse taught in academia is increasingly resonating in commercial heritage domains. Commercial space also offers new avenues for innovation and an increased emphasis on meaningful and accessible work products and service outcomes. Indigenous and other Descendant communities are also increasingly exercising their own agency in heritage management domains. This paper explores this expanding environment and profiles some of the engaged practice innovations commercial heritage practitioners and community stewards are developing.

Reorienting Bioarchaeology for an Era of Reconciliation: The Informed Behavioural Model
Author(s):
  • Rebecca Bourgeois - University of Saskatchewan

The discipline of archaeology in Canada has transitioned into an era of community driven work as a step to decolonize the practice. Bioarchaeology, on the other hand, has largely become focused on international projects and has all but halted in Canada. Under the recent (2015) recommendations put forth by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, this paper proposes the Informed Behavioural Model by which bioarchaeology can re-enter Canada by assuming a consultant role and functioning as a tool for the mortuary management of at-risk sites and the preservation of Canadian stories. Drawing on theoretical approaches such as the biocultural model, behavioral archaeology, archaeologies of personhood, shared histories, and general social theory, the Informed Behavioural Model outlines a pragmatic approach to orienting and interpreting bioarchaeological data under a specific intention and a heightened focus on personhood. This model contends that a holistic, community driven approach to bioarchaeological research activates the expertise of communities to achieve meaning and impactful outcomes.

The Cabins of My Ancestors: Conducting Archaeology as a Member of a Descendant Community
Author(s):
  • Dawn Wambold - University of Alberta

Conducting archaeology as the member of a descendant community embodies acts of decolonization and the reclamation of one’s heritage. However, it can also bring emotional and relationship entanglements to the practice of archaeology which need to be navigated. At the end of the research project, the descendant archaeologist cannot simply move on to the next project but must continue to live with the impact of their research on their community. In this presentation, I will discuss my personal journey as a Métis archaeologist and how engaged practice has influenced my experiences of studying the material culture of my ancestors.

With, By, and For: Engaging Archaeology’s Communities
Author(s):
  • Erin A. Hogg - Simon Fraser University
  • Chelsea H. Meloche - Simon Fraser University

Collaborative archaeology has become increasingly popular in recent decades with the impetus to engage “communities” becoming common practice. In many institutions, research training now incorporates some experience with qualitative methodologies, ethnography, and collaborative research design. Policy developments have ensured that stakeholder communities have more of a voice in archaeology than ever before. Junior scholars are meeting the challenges of this new research landscape and collaborating with a variety of stakeholders. In this presentation, we use examples from our own experiences and research to reflect upon what it means to engage with archaeology’s different stakeholders, including Indigenous descendants, the “public,” legal practitioners and policy makers, and archaeologists themselves.

Organizer(s): 
  • Marijo Gauthier-Bérubé, Institut de Recherche en Histoire Maritime et Archéologie Subaquatique & Texas A&M University
Contact Email: 

Session Abstract

Canada benefits from a privileged access to water by its proximity to the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, in addition to a complex network of lakes and rivers. These features are central to the human settlement of the Canadian territory. Every year, archaeologists conduct projects throughout the country to document and understand the maritime landscape.
Because of their complex nature, maritime archeological sites are often threatened by erosion, urban development, climate change, and looting. It is important to address the different problematic regarding this heritage and gather the different actors working to preserve it.
This session aims to open a dialogue, along with collaboration between various researchers and others dedicated to protecting and promoting maritime Canadian heritage.
//
Le Canada bénéficie d’un accès privilégié à l’eau de par son accès à l’océan Pacifique, Atlantique et Arctique en plus de bénéficier d’un important réseau de lacs et rivières qui parcourent son territoire. Cette particularité est au cœur du peuplement du territoire. Ainsi, chaque année, des archéologues mènent leurs projets à travers le pays afin de documenter et analyser le patrimoine maritime.
De par leur nature complexe, les sites archéologiques maritimes sont souvent sous la menace d’une destruction par l’érosion des berges, le développement urbain, les changements climatiques et le pillage. Il importe alors d’autant plus de soulever les différentes problématiques concernant ce patrimoine et rassembler au sein d’une même communauté les différents acteurs œuvrant à sa protection.
Avec cette session, nous souhaitons permettre l’ouverture du dialogue et la collaboration entre les différents centres de recherche et d’intérêts dédiés à la sauvegarde et promotion du patrimoine maritime du Canada.

Organizer(s): 
  • Paulina Scheck, University of Toronto

Session Abstract

Built spaces of the 20th century present heritage challenges both because of the attributes of their architectural styles and the nature of development projects that define this period. For example, the airport and the shopping mall, both hallmarks of the 20th century, have been described as “non-places” (Augé 1995), that is, places that are not meaningful themselves but that simply facilitate movement to other locations. Similarly, modernist architecture has revealed contradictions through the disconnect between its appreciation in specialist circles and its almost universal dislike among the public. Despite this, in many cases where modernist buildings faced demolition, there was also a considerable effort to fight for their preservation. What these heritage struggles indicate is that non-place is not simply a space that is antithetical in its qualities to place, but rather a kind of place that demands a different understanding of identity and belonging. This session invites researchers working on contemporary, 20th century contexts to share case studies, emerging themes, and theoretical and methodological directions while reflecting on the kinds of risks, challenges and contradictions that define 20th centuries sites. Particularly, researchers are invited to discuss types of risk emerging from the fast pace of development in the 20th centuries, the short life span of buildings that does not permit their significance to solidify before demolition, and the challenges of working against the clock to determine the meaning of sites that defy our traditional understandings of heritage.

Augé, M. 1995. Non-places: Introduction to an Anthropology of Supermodernity. London: Verso.

Organizer(s): 
  • Holly Martlle, TMHC
  • Matthew Beaudoin, TMHC
  • Joshua Dent, TMHC
  • Charles Orser Jr., TMHC

Session Abstract

The archaeology and study of communities, families and individuals of African descent is generally under-represented within the Canadian context. This lack of research is especially apparent when compared to the significant amount of research conducted within the United States. The differing social and political histories between the countries has resulted in a bifurcation in the emphasis on Black histories and narratives. While this bifurcation has manifested in differing emphases in general, it also masks differing social experiences of the time that would have had significant impact on the lived life of the time. For example, in many instances the 19th-century Black settlements in Canada were planned communities that were geographically distinct from earlier pre-emancipation contexts, whereas the sites in the United States often have a larger time-depth which often acts to complicate the continuity and change through that period. The purpose of this session is to bring Canadian researchers together to highlight what has been completed to-date and what are the valued research contexts/questions going forward.

Presentations

Thirty Years of African Nova Scotian Archaeology: From Occasional Project to Community Driven Partnerships
Author(s):
  • Catherine Cottreau-Robins - Nova Scotia Museum

It is agreed that within the field of historical archaeology in Canada, the focus on African-Canadian archaeology sites and associated subject matter has been thin. As a result, considerable challenge remains concerning building interest in the sub-discipline and promoting specialization within Canadian university graduate programs. This paper reviews efforts over 30 years in Nova Scotia to create awareness and develop interest in the African Nova Scotian past through archaeological fieldwork and research. Upon reflection and despite the challenges, much has taken place over the decades within the small province.  Research topics have ranged from the arrival of enslaved individuals through the eighteenth century, including the Black Loyalist migration, to War of 1812 Black Refugee settlement landscapes and early twentieth-century marginalized communities on the periphery of urban centers. However, it is a recent spirit of collaboration and community-driven, interdisciplinary partnership that has sparked an exciting model which holds promise to take African-Nova Scotian archaeology to the next level.  Information sharing and public engagement is critical to success.  Momentum building and guidance at the community level is key.

Organizer(s): 
  • Le comité-organisateur :
  • Pierre Desrosiers, Université Laval
  • Mélanie Gervais, CNTAQ
  • Manek Kolhatkar, CNTAQ
  • Antoine Loyer Rousselle, CNTAQ
  • Luis Trudel Lopez. CNTAQ

Session Abstract

Round-table abstract, Canadian Archaeological Association symposium,
Quebec City, 2019
Heritage at risk:
CRM archaeology in Canada, its regulations and its effects on archaeologists and archaeology
Co-organizers: Pierre Desrosiers, Mélanie Gervais, Manek Kolhatkar, Antoine Loyer Rousselle, Luis Trudel Lopez.
CRM archaeology in Quebec is practised in a poorly regulated environment that leaves it open to and even encourages competition for contracts to the lowest bidders. This has been going on for decades now, and its effects are felt by archaeologists whose working conditions are precarious, and whose say in the very archaeology they practise too often comes second to economic imperatives. In response to this situation, steps have been undertaken to write down regulations for Quebecois archaeologists and afford for a better practice. A new organization has been created for this purpose, le Centre de normalisation du travail en archéologie québécois.
The main goal of this round-table is to gain a nationwide overview of CRM archaeology, by allowing archaeological organizations from Canada's various provinces and territories to engage with some of the following issues, and to share efforts that are made to cope with these issues: do regulations protect archaeology and professional archaeologists ? If they are, what are they, could they be extended to other provinces and to Canada as a whole? If they are not, how are its practitioners affected? How is archaeology as a scientific practice impacted?
This round-table workshop will allow participants to address these concerns and others.

Proposition de table-ronde, colloque de l’Association canadienne d’archéologie

Ville de Québec, mai 2019

Le patrimoine à risque : l’archéologie contractuelle au Canada, son fonctionnement et ses effets sur les archéologues et l’archéologie

Le comité-organisateur : Pierre Desrosiers, Mélanie Gervais, Manek Kolhatkar, Antoine Loyer Rousselle, Luis Trudel Lopez.

L’archéologie contractuelle est pratiquée actuellement dans un contexte peu régulé et très ouvert, qui favorise la compétition pour l’obtention de contrats aux plus bas soumissionnaires. Cette façon de faire se poursuit depuis maintenant plusieurs décennies et ses effets se font sentir par les archéologues autant par la précarité de leurs conditions de travail que dans une pratique professionnelle trop souvent soumise à des impératifs économiques. En réponse à cette situation, une démarche a été entamée pour réguler la situation des archéologues au Québec et favoriser une meilleure pratique professionnelle. Un nouvel organisme a donc été créé à cet effet : le Centre de normalisation du travail en archéologie québécoise.
Le principal objectif de cette table-ronde est d’obtenir une vision d’ensemble sur les conditions de travail en archéologie contractuelle au Canada, en permettant aux organismes en archéologie des provinces et territoires de présenter leurs réalités et les enjeux qui les entourent, de même que leurs efforts pour faire face à de tels défis : Est-ce que les règlements protègent l’archéologie et les archéologues professionnels ? Si c’est le cas, lesquels et seraient-ils applicables aux autres provinces et territoires plus globalement ? Si ce n’est pas le cas, comment les archéologues sont-ils affectés par la situation ? Comment l’archéologie en tant que pratique scientifique est-elle affectée ?
Un atelier en forme de table ronde permettra aux participant•e•s de s’exprimer et d’échanger sur ces questions.
Liste des participant•e•s // List of participants:
Les associations ou syndicats d’archéologie suivants ont déjà manifesté leur intérêt à participer à cette table // The following archaeological associations or unions have already expressed their interest in attending to the workshop:

• Saskatchewan Archaeological Society (Tomasin Playford)
• British Columbia Association of Professional Archaeologists (Heather Kendall)
• Association of Professional Archaeologists of New Brunswick (à déterminer)
• LiUNA Central and Eastern Canada Organizing Fund (Samantha Easy and Joseph Cull)
• Archaeological Society of Alberta (Shawn Bubel)
• Centre de normalisation du travail en archéologie québécoise (Mélanie Gervais, Manek Kolhatkar, Antoine Loyer Rousselle, Luis Trudel-Lopez)

Modérateur/Moderator : Pierre Desrosiers
Discussant : Ian MacDonald (professeur associé, École de relations industrielles, Université de Montréal // Associate professor, school of Industrial Relations, Université de Montréal)

Organizer(s): 
  • Phil Woodley

Session Abstract

The Middle Woodland is an interesting period in the Northeast, but one that seems to be a bit of a black hole for research. This session will explore how the Middle Woodland groups of the northeast were engaging with and integrating exotic and local materials within locally understood social networks. Towards this end, this session will explore everything from single sites, to exchange systems, materiality, or seasonal round. Also, how does this compare, either similarly or differently, to the Early Woodland and early Late Woodland periods. Essentially, let us know what you are thinking about the Middle Woodland period, or the earlier or later transition from Early Woodland to early Late Woodland and how this relates to the Middle Woodland period.

Presentations

The Middle Woodland: Exciting Times in Southern Quebec
Author(s):
  • Christian Gates St-Pierre - Université de Montréal

The Middle Woodland was long perceived as a bland period of transition between the more sophisticated cultural developments of the Early and Late Woodland periods. However, research conducted during the past 20 years have highlighted the Middle Woodland origins of some of the most salient features of the Woodland cultures in the Northeast. This paper will explain how this lead to a reinterpretation of the Middle Woodland period in the Quebec portion of the St. Lawrence River valley. It will also show how the Middle Woodland populations of this area were as well connected with regional and interregional groups then those who lived there before and after.

Organizer(s): 
  • Nicolas Cadieux, McGill Applied Remote Sensing Lab

Session Abstract

As archaeologists, we are trained to think first and foremost in terms of time dimension.

Yet, continual methodological and technological advances are bringing new dimensions into perspective. The democratization of GIS through OpenSource software, the accessibility of precise GNSS, and progress in photogrammetry, remote sensing, drones and ground-based devices like laser scanners, have allowed 3D space, n dimensional datasets and n dimensional hyperspectral images (HIS) to complement the time dimension. In a science where paper maps and charts still lay on every desk, we will explore how these new dimensions offered by the desktop computer through spatial modeling, point clouds and hyperspectral data cubes can add depth to our knowledge of archaeological sites.

En tant qu’archéologue, la dimension temporelle prend toute son importance.

Toutefois, les progrès du point de vue méthodologique et technologique nous forcent à considérer de nouvelles dimensions. La démocratisation des systèmes d’information géographique (SIG) via les logiciels libres, l’accessibilité des systèmes de positionnement par satellite de haute précision (GNSS), les progrès en photogrammétrie, télédétection, au niveau des aéronefs télépilotés et des relevés au laser 3D permettent d’enrichir l’espace-temps avec la dimension spatiale 3D et les jeux de données et d’imagerie hyperspectrale multidimensionnels. Dans le but de mieux comprendre les sites archéologiques, nous explorons les multiples dimensions offertes notamment par la modélisation spatiale, les nuages de points et les données hyperspectrales.

Organizer(s): 
  • Catherine Cottreau-Robins and Barry Gaulton
Contact Email: 

Session Abstract

Dr. Michael Deal has enjoyed a long and fruitful career in archaeology. His retirement in August 2018, after 33 years of dedicated teaching and university service at Memorial University of Newfoundland, provides a fitting opportunity to reflect upon and recognize his achievements. The papers in this session, presented by colleagues and former/current students, pay homage to the breadth and scope of Mike’s research interests. From the Archaic shoreline of the Annapolis River to the Mexican highlands and the airfields of Gander, Mike has studied the full range of prehistory in the Maritime Peninsula and beyond, influencing regularly the fields of pre-colonial archaeology, ethnoarchaeology, paleoethnobotany, industrial archaeology and aviation archaeology. Join us as we celebrate a remarkable contribution to Canadian archaeology.

Presentations

The palaeoethnobotany of Ferryland's Beothuk deposits
Author(s):
  • Emma Lewis-Sing - Memorial University of Newfoundland

For almost three decades, Memorial University of Newfoundland’s Archaeology Unit (now the Department of Archaeology) offered an ‘Introduction to Palaeoethnobotany’ undergraduate course taught by Dr. Michael Deal. Students were instructed in macrobotanical recovery and interpretation through hands-on flotation and microscopic identification of specimens from never-before analysed archaeological sediment samples. Excavations at the archaeological site of Ferryland (CgAf-02) in the 1990s and early 2000s provided numerous samples for this course, including those collected from hearth features associated with a 16th-century Beothuk occupation. This paper presents the reconciliation of 20+ years of palaeoethnobotanical data with recent analyses of sediments from these Beothuk contexts in an attempt to present a consolidated interpretation of the Beothuk deposits at Ferryland. Intermingled are reflections on my research as Mike Deal’s final MA student, and how getting to know him at the end of his career at MUN was a once-in-a-lifetime experience.

“A profitable merchandise” : the archaeology of early industry at Avalon 1621-1629
Author(s):
  • Barry Gaulton - Memorial University of Newfoundland

Acknowledging Mike’s interest in the archaeology of small-scale industries in Atlantic Canada, this paper explores the evidence for early industry at the colony of Avalon in Ferryland, Newfoundland between 1621 and 1629. Established by Sir George Calvert, this English settlement’s economic lifeblood was grounded in the cod fishery; however, the first years also saw attempts at other industries including timber extraction, mineral exploration and assaying for precious metals, slate quarrying, salt making, and hemp and flax cultivation. At the same time, the growing colony required infrastructure for the small-scale production of dietary staples such as bread and beer. Structural hardware, tools, and fishing implements were also made on-site at the colony’s forge, operated by two blacksmiths. Some of these fledgling industries proved unfeasible or unnecessary beyond the first few years of settlement, whereas others continued until ca. 1640 when Ferryland’s new proprietor Sir David Kirke altered the colony’s operations.     

Organizer(s): 
  • Matthew Betts
  • James Woollett

Session Abstract

Rising sea levels and global warming are actively destroying untold numbers of archaeological sites worldwide. With the longest coastline on the planet, Canada sits at the apex of this global archaeological crisis. Due to limited data, heritage professionals do not have a complete grasp of the actual scope of the crisis in this country, but the data we do have indicates that the task facing us is immense. Unfortunately, no coordinated national program exists to address the issue, and provincial and territorial agencies currently do not have the resources they need to tackle the problem. How do we build, from the ground up, a comprehensive approach to locate, assess, prioritize, salvage, and monitor threatened archaeological sites in Canada? How do we integrate the needs of communities and peoples whose history is being washed out to sea? Dr. Thomas McGovern, of the international North Atlantic Biocultural Organization (NABO), and Dr. Thomas Dawson, from the Scottish Coastal Archaeology and the Problem of Erosion (SCAPE) program in Scotland, will present papers on their experiences developing national and international rescue archaeology programs. Following the presentations, they will be joined by Canadian and American heritage experts for an open panel discussion which will respond to comments and questions from the audience.

Organizer(s): 
  • Isabelle Lemieux, Ministère de la Culture et des Communication

Session Abstract

Le Ministère de la Culture et des Communications du Québec (MCC) vous propose une session intitulée "Fusion du passé et du futur : le patrimoine archéologique à l'ère du numérique".

Un bref retour dans le passé : le Ministère présentera d’abord un tour d’horizon des actions réalisées en 2018-2019. Le dévoilement de la politique culturelle Partout la culture en juin 2018 marque un jalon important, mettant de l’avant ce lien étroit entre les populations, la culture et la vitalité du territoire, notamment en accordant une place importante au secteur du patrimoine. Également, plusieurs documents et outils qui seront mis à la disposition de la communauté archéologique en 2019 seront présentés.

En route vers le futur : cette partie de la session sera l'occasion pour le MCC d’exposer à la communauté archéologique l’orientation actuelle du Gouvernement du Québec en termes d’accessibilité et de partage des données, ainsi que le Plan culturel numérique du Québec (PCNQ) dont certaines mesures touchent spécifiquement le patrimoine archéologique. Le Ministère fera également état de ses réflexions sur le déploiement d'une offre numérique soutenant la connaissance, la protection, la mise en valeur et la transmission du patrimoine culturel.

La conservation, la transmission et la valorisation du patrimoine : c’est une question de mobilisation de tous les acteurs. Le Ministère de la Culture et des Communications du Québec œuvre en ce sens au bénéfice de toutes et de tous.

Organizer(s): 
  • Louis Lesage, Bureau du Nionwenstïo, Nation Huronne-Wendat
  • Alicia Hawkins, Laurentian University
  • Stéphane Noël, Gaia, Coopérative de travail en archéologie
  • Allison Bain, Université Laval

Session Abstract

Huron-Wendat ancestral landscapes, sites, and artifacts are a rich source of knowledge and pride for present day Huron-Wendat peoples. To help protect this precious heritage, in the last decades the Huron-Wendat Nation has become increasingly involved in the management of this cultural heritage. This session will explore collaborative research projects between the Nation and archaeological researchers, projects which aim to address questions of importance to the Nation from both before and after European contact.

Organizer(s): 
  • Serge Rouleau

Session Abstract

Au cours des dernière décennies, la diminution du recrutement a incité plusieurs communautés religieuses à initier une réflexion concernant leur avenir. Certaines ont vécu une véritable période de transition les menant à réfléchir sur un changement de vocation de leur propriété. Devant ces défis, le potentiel archéologique des sites des communautés fondatrices offre une plus-value indéniable sur plusieurs aspects : meilleure connaissance de l’histoire du site et son identité, compréhension détaillée de son évolution, capacité d’orienter les projets de mise en valeur, commémoration, etc.

La question de la gestion des ressources archéologiques se place donc parmi les enjeux incontournables pour ces propriétés dont le périmètre, pour plusieurs, est demeuré relativement inchangé au cours des siècles. Les présentations des sites institutionnels de Montréal, de Trois-Rivières et de Québec seront abordées sous divers aspects associés à la gestion de ces ressources et leur utilisation.

Organizer(s): 
  • Louise Pothier, Pointe-à-Callière, cité d'archéologie et d'histoire de Montréal

Session Abstract

Au coeur du site patrimonial de Montréal, le site du Marché-Sainte-Anne-et-du-Parlement-du-Canada-Uni (1832-1901) a fait l'objet d'un ambitieux programme de recherches archéologiques et historiques initié par le musée Pointe-à-Callière dans le but de mettre en valeur ce site d'importance nationale. Cette session aborde plusieurs aspects de ce projet qui a fait l'objet de plusieurs campagnes de fouilles entre 2010 et 2017. Nous aborderons les thèmes suivants : construction d'un édifice monumental au-dessus du lit d'une rivière urbaine canalisée, richesse des fonctions liées au marché et à la présence du Parlement du Canada-Uni, grand niveau d'intégrité des fondations permettant d'analyser l'architecture du premier marché couvert à avoir été construit au Canada, richesse de la culture matérielle en lien notamment avec la présence du Parlement incendié en 1849, traitement innovateur des données avec la création d'une interface d'analyse numérique et géoréférencée et, enfin, réflexions sur l'avenir de ce site archéologique, porteur d'une charge symbolique dans la cité et la société actuelle.

Organizer(s): 
  • Éric Graillon, Musée de la nature et des sciences de Sherbrooke
  • Claude Chapdelaine, Université de Montréal

Session Abstract

Les objectifs de cette session visent à présenter des données inédites sur deux sites de Brompton en Estrie où des indices archéologiques révèlent une très longue succession d’occupations amérindiennes à partir du Paléoindien récent jusqu’au Sylvicole supérieur. Sur le site d’en haut, Kruger 2 ou BiEx-23, le bilan de la campagne de 2018 est présenté alors que les résultats de trois interventions sur le site d’en bas, Kruger 3 ou BiEx-24, témoignent d’une présence amérindienne sur plus de 130 cm de profondeur. Le site Kruger 3 est donc un cas d’exception le long de la rivière Saint-François et il constitue un exemple édifiant de la pertinence de fouiller des petits sites marqués par une faible densité des vestiges culturels / The presentation of new data on two sites located in Brompton, Eastern Townships, is the main objective of this session. Archaeological data indicate a long human occupation of the area starting with Late Paleoindian to the Late Woodland period. BiEx-23 or Kruger 2, located on the upper terrace, was last excavated in 2018 and the new information is presented. At BiEx-24 or Kruger 3, located on the low terrace, the bedrock has not yet been found and the long sequence of human occupation is still present at 130 cm below the surface. This small site is thus exceptional within the Saint-François River Basin and it constitutes a good example of the relevance of digging small sites with low density of cultural remains.

Presentations

Des pierres chauffées par le feu, des éclats et un choix de matières premières, un regard particulier sur le site Kruger
Author(s):
  • Lise Boisvert - AAQ

Cette analyse est liée, tout d'abord, à la présence dans l'aire #3 du site Kruger 2 d'une possible structure de combustion, la structure #1, constituée d'une concentration de pierres chauffées et éclatées par le feu, et où ont été trouvés des restes osseux et une forte concentration de vestiges lithiques, y compris des pointes et des forets de la culture Plano. L'objectif visait à vérifier si, dans les puits qui englobent la structure, des éclats comportant des traces d'exposition au feu (cupules, altération de couleur) permettaient d'appuyer la présence d'une structure de combustion. L'analyse comporte aussi un volet comparatif entre les aires #2 et #3 à l’aide de plusieurs études sur le débitage et dans le but de mesurer l'apparentement entre les groupes qui ont fréquenté le site. Les deux volets de cette analyse semblent appuyer respectivement la fonction de la structure #1, ainsi que la relative homogénéité culturelle entre les deux aires.

Les occupations les plus anciennes de BiEx-24 (Kruger 3) et les implications chronologiques et culturelles
Author(s):
  • Claude Chapdelaine - Université de Montréal

Résumé. La distribution verticale des témoins culturels dans le sol sablonneux meuble du site BiEx-24 a permis de fouiller dans le secteur sud-ouest une unité de 2 x 1,5 m2 jusqu’à une profondeur de 130 cm sans atteindre la roche en place. Les trois niveaux arbitraires, 100-110 cm, 110-120 cm et 120-130 cm, se sont avérés positifs avec un total de 30 éléments lithiques et 63 os blanchis. L’absence d’un outil diagnostique ne nous permet pas d’inférer une tradition culturelle, mais en plus de la profondeur, la présence de certaines matières premières et la datation d’un échantillon charbon de bois prélevé à 125 cm de profondeur nous incite à proposer une occupation remontant à plus de 9000 ans étalonnés avant aujourd’hui. Les principaux indices de ces niveaux inférieurs du site BiEx-24 seront décrits et discutés tout en précisant les implications chronologiques et culturelles à l’échelle régionale sans négliger le cadre géographique plus vaste de l’Extrême Nord-Est.

 

Outillage et débitage au site Kruger 3 (BiEx-24), témoignage de patrons chrono-culturels associés aux groupe du Sylvicole et de l'Archaïque en Estrie
Author(s):
  • Jolyane Saule - Trent University

Kruger 3 est un site dont l’importance pour l’archéologie de l’Estrie est désormais remarquable suite aux fouilles de 2018. Le site se distingue par la présence de matériel datant des périodes du Sylvicole et de l’Archaïque et par son caractère peu perturbé. Il s’agit d’un lieu de portage où se sont arrêtés périodiquement des groupes autochtones. On y reconnait au moins quatre épisodes du Sylvicole et plusieurs occupations de l’Archaïque incluant les traditions Susquehanna, Laurentienne, du Golfe du Maine et Neville de l’Archaïque moyen. La communication discutera des multiples occupations étalées sur près de 9000 ans AA à travers la présence d’objets diagnostics. Puis, seront présentés les résultats de l’analyse du débitage. Cette analyse avait pour but de dresser un portrait chrono-culturel de BiEx-24 à travers l’étude des déchets de taille. Une approche par attributs ainsi qu’une évaluation des distributions verticales et horizontales ont été favorisées afin de quantifier les spécificités des industries lithiques des différentes périodes. C’est donc en utilisant les principes de la séquence de réduction et l’identification des matières premières que les assemblages respectifs ont été décrits et confrontés. Les résultats suggèrent que les comportements ─notamment de mobilité─ étaient effectivement distincts aux deux périodes.

Une discontinuité pédologique dans le profil de sol du site BiEx-24 (Kruger 3) ?
Author(s):
  • François Courchesne - Département de géographie, Université de Montréal

Les profils de sol du site BiEx-24 montrent des variations verticales au plan de la couleur, de la densité et du contenu apparent en matière organique et en fer. Ces contrastes sont nets dans la partie centrale du profil et suggèrent l’existence d’une discontinuité pédologique située à une profondeur de 65-70 cm à partir de la surface actuelle. Afin de valider ces observations de terrain, les propriétés chimiques (tous les horizons du profil) et la minéralogie par diffraction des rayons-x (horizons sélectionnés) ont été déterminées en laboratoire. Ces marqueurs chimiques et minéralogiques tendent à soutenir l’hypothèse d’une discontinuité dans la stratigraphie du sol, notamment les contenus en oxydes métalliques, en matière organique et en phosphore extractible. L’origine de la discontinuité ainsi que les implications de ces variations verticales des caractéristiques de la coupe de Kruger 3 sur son interprétation archéologique seront mises en relief.

Organizer(s): 
  • Amy N. Fox, University of Toronto.
  • Ingrid-Morgane G. Gauvin, University at Albany, SUNY.
Contact Email: 

Session Abstract

Cette session désire partager de nouvelles et excitantes recherches à propos de la large démarcation de 8000 ans connu sous le nom de l’Archaïque en Amérique du Nord. Alors que plusieurs chercheur-e-s établi-e-s et en début de carrière théorisent l’Archaïque de façons novatrices, la dissémination de cette recherche se voit difficile due à la régionalisation et à la spécificité de cette période. Cette session servira de lieu d’accueil pour les chercheur-e-s examinant l’Archaïque, afin d’identifier des parallèles, des associations, et des comparaisons autrement inexaminés par notre discipline. Nous encourageons particulièrement les approches introspectives sur notre discipline, ses outils analytiques, ses concepts, qui questionnent ses a priori, et qui étendent ses horizons à des régions considérés comme périphériques ou qui emploient de nouvelles méthodes ou cadres théoriques. Nous encourageons la soumission de communiqués qui partagent des résultats préliminaires, ainsi que des communiqués de chercheur-e-s en début de carrière en recherche d’un réseau d’appuis. Les organisatrices de la session tiennent à entretenir un espace ouvert à la diversité d’opinion, de recherches, et d’expériences envers la période Archaïque. Nous reconnaissons que l’exam de la diversité culturelle de cette période nécessite une diversité de perspectives et de voix de la part de ses chercheur-e-s. Notre session représentera cet idéal. // This session opens the floor to share new and exciting research about the 8000-year demarcation of time known as the Archaic Period in North America. While many established and early career researchers are theorizing the Archaic in novel ways, disseminating research to a wide audience is difficult because this time period is known for its localness and specificity. This session will serve as a meeting place for Archaic Period researchers such that we may discern parallels, associations, and otherwise-overlooked connections present in our community. Particularly encouraged are perspectives on the Archaic that look inward at our field and its traditional analytic tools and constructs, that question its assumptions, and that expand its purview such as studies on traditionally-peripheral regions or ones that employ a novel methodology or theoretical framework. In particular, we welcome submission of papers sharing preliminary results and papers from early career researchers looking for a supportive networking community.
The session organizers value and will be holding space for diverse opinions, research, and experiences relating to the Archaic Period. We know that the social diversity present during this time demands a diversity of perspectives and voices from its researchers; our session will embody this ideal.

Organizer(s): 
  • Samantha Walker, McGill University.
Contact Email: 

Session Abstract

The Foxe Basin region, Nunavut, has served as an important place of intensive walrus hunting and human settlement for Paleo-Inuit (Tuniit, Paleoeskimo), Early Inuit (Thule Inuit), and modern Inuit, alike. Since the earliest archaeological surveys and excavations by Graham Rowley in 1939 at Avvaja (Abverdjar), archaeologists working in Foxe Basin have been confronted with a growing number of challenges affecting Arctic research. What have we learned about the cultural history of the Foxe Basin region in this time? How are exciting new developments in archaeology helping researchers mediate environmental and cultural change in Nunavut? What is the role of archaeology in a transforming North? The session welcomes papers that reflect on the past and present of Foxe Basin archaeology, while considering future research directions in this diverse region of the Canadian Arctic.

Organizer(s): 
  • Nicolas BEAUDRY, Laboratoire d'archéologie et de patrimoine, Université du Québec à Rimouski
  • Manon SAVARD, Laboratoire d'archéologie et de patrimoine, Université du Québec à Rimouski
Contact Email: 

Session Abstract

Depuis le tournant du millénaire, une archéologie du passé contemporain ou récent s’est constituée comme un nouveau champ de recherche et de pratique. Cette archéologie soulève des questions épistémologiques nouvelles telles que sa relation au temps et à l’ancienneté, aux individus et aux communautés vivantes; sa contribution à la construction des mémoires et des patrimoines; la valeur de la matérialité dans la reconstitution du passé; etc. Dans quelle mesure cette archéologie du passé récent est-elle une extension de l’archéologie historique? Que peut être son apport à l’archéologie publique? Quels nouveaux terrains, quels objets originaux, quelles questions nouvelles s’offrent aux archéologues?
Nous vous invitons à proposer des réflexions théoriques et des études de cas sur l’archéologie du passé récent en contextes québécois et canadien.

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Since the turn of the millennium, an archaeology of the contemporary or recent past has emerged as a new field of research and practice. This archaeology raises new epistemological questions such as its relation to time, to living individuals and communities; its contribution to the construction of memory and heritage; the value of materiality in the reconstruction of the past; etc. To what extent is this archaeology of the recent past an extension of historical archaeology? What can be its contribution to public archaeology? What new terrains, what original objects, what new questions are opened to archaeologists?
This session welcomes theoretical reflections and case studies on the archaeology of the recent past in Canadian contexts.

Organizer(s): 
  • Solène Mallet Gauthier, Université Laval
  • Eli Blouin-Rondeau, Université Laval
  • Allison Bain, Université Laval

Session Abstract

Un nombre important de sites archéologiques découverts lors de travaux de construction en contexte urbain sont associés à des occupations datant de la fin du XVIIIe siècle et du XIXe siècle. Souvent vus comme une obligation en vue d’un développement urbain éventuel plutôt que le centre d’intérêt de projets de recherche, la fouille et l’analyse de ce type de site constituent toutefois des éléments non-négligeables de la recherche archéologique canadienne actuelle. L’étude approfondie de sites archéologiques urbains datant de la fin du XVIIIe et du XIXe siècle, parfois sous-estimée, s’avère être une source importante d’informations sur le passé. Cette session se veut donc un tour d’horizon des recherches récentes réalisées sur des sites urbains de cette période au Canada, autant en contexte académique que professionnel.

/Many archaeological sites encountered in urban contexts during construction work date from the late 18th and 19th centuries. Often seen as an obligation related to future site development and not necessarily of interest for research projects, the excavation of these sites are a significant part of current Canadian archaeological practice. The in depth analyses of these sites dating from the late 18th and 19th centuries proves to be an important source of information about the recent past, that has been undervalued in some regions. This session aims to provide an overview of recent archaeological studies carried out on urban sites from this period throughout Canada, both in academic and professional contexts.

Presentations

Urban pet burials and their archaeological potential
Author(s):
  • Eric Tourigny - Newcastle University

Private, back-garden pet burials are commonly encountered while excavating urban assemblages dating to the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries in Canada. Often representing someone’s dearly departed pet, these remains are typically reported as present, catalogued, boxed and promptly forgotten. Using case studies from 19th-century Ontario, this paper demonstrates how the in-depth analysis of pet burials can be used to reconstruct the biographies of individual animals. The resulting data is then used to address important research questions investigating changing human-animal relationships in Canadian society such as the impact of the rising animal welfare movement on the treatment of animals and the changing roles of pets in everyday lives and in the afterlife.

 

Organizer(s): 
  • Allison Bain, CELAT, Université Laval
  • Geneviève Treyvaud , Grand Conseil de la Nation Waban-aki & INRS
  • Najat Bhiry, CEN, Université Laval
  • Pierre Francus , INRS
  • James Woollett, CEN, Université Laval

Session Abstract

Cette séance d’affiches présente les recherches récentes des membres du Groupe de recherche en archéométrie. Cette équipe de recherche a été fondée en 1994 et financée par le Fonds de Recherche du Québec - Société et Culture. Les affiches présentées dans cette session sont des résultats de notre programmation «Archéométrie : analyses de la composition, de la structure et de la fonction du mobilier archéologique et recherches intégrées en archéologie environnementale». Les chercheurs de l'équipe et leurs étudiants travaillent sur l'étude des artefacts et sur des analyses en archéologie environnementale en intégrant les méthodes pluridisciplinaires à la pointe de la recherche. Les thèmes de recherche présentés dans cette session incluent l’occupation et la transformation des territoires de différentes régions (Islande, Québec, Labrador), les développements technologiques par plusieurs cultures (Inuits, Premières Nations, Norrois, Européens) et le mobilier issu de ces sites.

Organizer(s): 
  • Geneviève Treyvaud, Bureau du Ndakinna, Grand Conseil de la Nation Waban-Aki et INRS-ETE

Session Abstract

Le Ndakinna, le Mi’kma’ki et le Wulust’agook sont les territoires ancestraux des W8banakiak, Mi’gmaq et Wulust’agooga’wik. Ces territoires chevauchent la frontière actuelle entre le Canada et les États-Unis. Depuis une dizaine d’années, les Conseils de ces Nations et leurs membres organisent et participent à des projets archéologiques afin de documenter l’utilisation et l’occupation ancienne des territoires. Cette session se veut une mise à jour des nouvelles connaissances archéologiques acquises. Nous aborderons dans cette session la problématique de la définition du territoire, les aspects archéologiques de la territorialité, la périodisation archéologique du passé autochtone versus sa continuité. Nous discuterons aussi des problèmes d’érosion côtière et des projets mis en place pour documenter et surveiller la perte d’informations archéologiques.

Organizer(s): 
  • Lisa Rankin, Memorial University of Newfoundland

Session Abstract

The term isolation conjures images of remote populations, separated from neighbours and the outside world by great distances, challenging environments and even physical barriers, unable to interact with others. Contemporary archaeology acknowledges that there is really no such thing as an isolated society and that all human communities depend on interaction –however infrequent - with others for their biological and cultural variability . Yet isolation remains a valuable, if ambiguous, concept to investigate the socio-cultural ramifications resulting from different levels of connections and separation that existed between and within populations. This session invites papers which use the concept of isolation to discuss the archaeology of people who live parts of their lives in relative isolation from other groups, or, perhaps more commonly, phenomena of isolation within communities - both of which can be powerful catalysts for social change and differentiation. Participants may also want to address issues arising from undertaking archaeology in isolated places, or from doing archaeology alone.

Organizer(s): 
  • Kenneth Holyoke, Doctoral Student, University of Toronto
  • Gabriel Hrynick, Assistant Professor, University of New Brunswick

Session Abstract

Northern New England and the Atlantic Provinces of Canada (loosely defined here as the Far Northeast) have seen recent archaeological syntheses of the Palaeoindian and Archaic periods, but not yet such a consideration of the last ca. 3000 years. In the Eastern Woodlands broadly, unified taxonomic notions of “Woodland” have drawn increasing scrutiny as attributes such as horticulture, village formation, mortuary ceremonialism, and various technologies now appear to have developed less synchronously than once thought, and archaeologists have increasingly illuminated sub-regional and diachronic variability. The Far Northeast deserves particular attention because it has long occupied a unique—if at times, marginal—position in Woodland discourse, starkly signaled by taxonomic dissimilarity; but how different is the Ceramic/Maritime Woodland period, Recent Indian period, or Woodland period in the Far Northeast in terms of archaeological history than elsewhere in the Northeast? And how much sub-regional and diachronic variability was there in the most recent period of prehistory in the Far Northeast? This session includes both topical and regional papers that consider questions of culture change in the Far Northeast, especially studies that are situated within these broader concerns.

Presentations

Bay of Fundy Provenance for Pre-contact Copper Artifacts from the Maritime Peninsula
Author(s):
  • Catherine Cottreau-Robins - Nova Scotia Museum

This research project uses in-situ non-destructive laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) to compare trace metal concentrations in copper artifacts from pre-contact sites in the Maritime Peninsula (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Maine), to natural copper samples from geological sources in Michigan, Ontario, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and the western and eastern regions of the Bay of Fundy.  The objective of the research is to determine the provenance of copper artifacts relative to source regions. Upon review of over 5200 analyses obtained from over 460 copper artifacts, a consistent observation has been the contrasting composition of Lake Superior copper and Bay of Fundy sources, with the latter showing much higher zinc and much lower arsenic concentrations. In fact, a Bay of Fundy provenance is explicit for many artifacts analyzed. Importantly, no artifacts have chemical compositions consistent with Lake Superior sources. The results establish the importance of local (Fundy) copper to pre-contact period Indigenous peoples of Nova Scotia and the Maritimes, negating the Lake Superior model. Furthermore, recognition of distinct eastern and western Fundy copper provenance within the artifact collection has significance in the broader context of territorial procurement of copper and trade relationships.

Beyond the horizon to the Caribou House: the Late Prehistoric Period in interior Nitassinan.
Author(s):
  • Stephen Loring - Arctic Studies Center, Smithsonian Institution
  • Anthony  Jenkinson - Tshikapisk Foundation, Sheshatshiu, Labrador

Caribou have always figured significantly (and intimately) in the lives of Innu. For almost twenty years now the Smithsonian’s Arctic Studies Center has partnered with Tshikapisk (an Innu experiential education initiative) to explore Innu history and culture in and about Kamestastin (Lake Mistastin, a meteorite-impact lake in the interior of northern Labrador).  The Tshikapisk collaborative has documented over 260 Innu sites spanning the full range of occupations from the time of the disappearance of glacial ice, about 7000 years ago, to the present day.  This presentation discusses the archaeological evidence for the last thousand years of Innu tenure in Nitassinan and it’s implications for  models of caribou subsistence strategies, group mobility and reverence for the Animal Masters.    

Ceramic Production and Use in the High Laurentians
Author(s):
  • Evan Mann - CUNY The Graduate Center
  • Karine Taché - CUNY Queens College
  • Roland Tremblay - Ethnoscop Inc.
  • Aida Barbera - CUNY The Graduate Center

The recovery of ceramic fragments north of the St. Lawrence Lowlands can no longer be coined anecdotal and is thereby challenging the long-held assumption that nomadic hunter/gatherer populations of the Eastern Subarctic greatly rejected or ignored pottery technology. Here we present the combined results of typological, technological, and residue analysis of recent ceramic data collected from the High Laurentian region of Québec, Canada. While questions surrounding the origins, production, and use of these containers abound, their intensive investigation utilizing the latest bio- and geochemical methods can shed new light on old dishes. This work is part of a larger research project investigating how Northern Algonquian populations negotiated their identities through foods and foodways in the face of inter-societal contact and technological innovations.

Longterm Patterns in Maritime Woodland Shellfishing Practices In Passamaquoddy Bay.
Author(s):
  • Katherine Patton - University of Toronto
  • Susan Blair - University of New Brunswick

In this paper, we present preliminary results of a multi-site study of invertebrate remains collected from archaeological shell midden sites in Passamaquoddy Bay, homeland of the Peskotomuhkati. Using data from published and unpublished sources, we explore diversity in shellfishing practices through space (site location) and time (from the Early Maritime Woodland through the post-European-contact period). Looking at shellfishing practices through a household lens, we consider what variability in shellfish taxa and abundance might reveal about the timing and duration of settlement in particular locations on the landscape.

The struggle was real: on the end of the Archaic in the eastern Subarctic of North America
Author(s):
  • Donald Holly - Eastern Illinois University
  • Christopher Wolff - SUNY Albany
  • Stephen Hull - Provincial Archaeology Office, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador

The transition between the end of the Archaic and the so called Intermediate Indian Period in the Eastern Subarctic of North America was marked by significant changes in just about all dimensions of life—technology, raw material use, exchange networks, social organization, architecture, burial customs, settlement patterns, and subsistence strategies—for First Nations peoples. These changes, coinciding with an apparent reduction of site numbers and contraction in site distribution, suggest that this transition was less a strategic reorganization and more of what might better be understood as a demographic collapse and cultural crisis.

The Woodland Period in the Eastern Townships, Québec
Author(s):
  • Claude Chapdelaine - Université de Montréal

Abstract. Archaeological data support the participation of the Eastern Townships in the Meadowood interaction sphere during the Early Woodland, probably through the connexion between the St. Lawrence Valley and the Saint-François River. It is however during the Middle Woodland with the integration of pottery decorated with the pseudo scallop shell decoration that the region seems more intensively occupied. During the Late Woodland, there is no indication of major changes in the settlement pattern, the lithic network and certainly not in the use of ceramic vessels. Contact with the St. Lawrence Iroquoians is limited. A nomadic way of life was maintained during the whole Woodland Period and cultural continuity will be addressed. The material culture, mostly ceramics and lithic tools and debitage, will be discussed as well as the major lithic sources to provide a better picture of the Woodland groups of the study area.

We Call it the Maritime Woodland: Exploring Themes and Challenges 3000 BP to Contact
Author(s):
  • Kenneth  Holyoke - University of Toronto
  • Gabriel Hrynick - University of New Brunswick

From our vantage, the Maritime Peninsula, the Woodland period (ca. 3000 BP to contact) presents an image of interregional and sub-regional diversity and diachronic change that would have been hard to identify a few decades ago. However, it remains a fuzzy image, and one that is being actively wiped away by contemporary issues of sea-level rise and development. Recent research and the aggregation of data at scales ranging from the domestic to the inter-regional raise questions about how the Maritime Peninsula fits in the Far Northeast, the Northeast, and the Woodland concept. In this paper we use the Maritime Peninsula to explore questions, themes, and developments about this crucial period in the Far Northeast.

“… and we showered with a thousand praises the woman who had been the fire's guardian…”: Ancestral Wabanaki Gender and Placemaking in the Woodland Period
Author(s):
  • Gabriel Hrynick - University of New Brunswick
  • Matthew Betts - Canadian Museum of History

In many hunter gatherer societies, gender is an essential way in which the social and spiritual world is structured. Wabanaki language, ethnohistory, oral tradition, and archaeology all attest to gender as a crucial yet malleable way that ancestral Wabanaki made their place within and interacted with the world around them. Close scrutiny of gender in the Woodland period, we argue, helps to illuminate how relationships were made among people, nature, and the cosmos. Changing and reifying these relationships offered ways for people to adapt to social and environmental change. In this paper, we consider Woodland period gender at scales ranging from single artifacts to local landscapes to track the ways that that ancestral Wabanaki made their homes and histories in the Atlantic Northeast. 

Organizer(s): 
  • Christopher Wolff, University at Albany
  • Frank J. Feeley, CUNY Graduate Center

Session Abstract

Human-environment interactions in northern waters, particularly those governed by significant sea ice formation and duration, has long been a necessary focus of archaeologists who study Subarctic and Arctic cultures. Historically considered marginal, both geographically and culturally, a growing body of research has been changing that view with the integration of high-resolution environmental proxy datasets and increasing knowledge of the archaeological record. This session brings together a diverse group of interdisciplinary researchers from Subarctic and Arctic regions around the world and examines human-environment and social dynamics that reflect and influence northern interactions with marine systems. It will present new data and Maritime Historical Ecology perspectives on fisheries and marine mammal exploitation as part of the Oceans Past Initiative (www.oceanspast.org). Much of the session’s focus will be on methods of integration of complex environmental proxy data with the archaeological record, but particular attention will also be on the socio-cultural contexts that provide a historical framework to our understanding of northern coastal and island peoples.

Organizer(s): 
  • Christian Gates St-Pierre, Université de Montréal

Session Abstract

Résumé: Cette session bilingue propose de jeter de nouveaux regards sur les Iroquoiens du Saint-Laurent à partir de travaux récents menés au Québec, en Ontario et dans l’État de New York. Les communications présentées dans cette session offriront une grande diversité d’approches conceptuelles, de méthodes d’analyse et de thématiques de recherche visant à mieux comprendre cette grande nation iroquoienne. Certains proposeront aussi des réflexions plus personnelles sur l’impact social de leurs recherches sur des enjeux contemporains. C’est donc à la fois le dynamisme et la pertinence sociale des recherches actuelles sur les Iroquoiens du Saint-Laurent qui s’exprimeront à travers les propos des participants.

Abstract: This bilingual session proposes to take a fresh look at the St. Lawrence Iroquoians based on current studies conducted in Quebec, Ontario and New York State. The papers presented in this session will offer a wide variety of conceptual approaches, analytical methods and topics to better understand this great Iroquoian nation. Some will also offer their personal thoughts regarding the social impacts of their research on more contemporary issues. Therefore, it is both the dynamism and social relevancy of the current research on St. Lawrence Iroquoians that will be expressed through the participants' presentations.

Presentations

Creuser des trous de mémoire, pour mieux les combler: une première école de fouilles au site Isings en Montérégie
Author(s):
  • Christian Gates St-Pierre - Université de Montréal

Le site Isings est un village iroquoien du XIIIe ou XIVe siècle situé à Saint-Anicet, en Montérégie. Il s’agit du plus ancien établissement sédentaire et agricole connu à ce jour au Québec. Cette courte communication présente les objectifs du projet de recherche à long terme sur ce site unique, ainsi qu’un résumé des découvertes de la première saison de l’École de fouilles du Département d’anthropologie de l’Université de Montréal durant l’été 2018. Elle met aussi la table à la présentation d’un film documentaire réalisé par un des stagiaires d’origine autochtone et intitulé Trous de mémoires.

Sous le pavé, le village! Des données inédites du site Dawson au centre-ville de Montréal.
Author(s):
  • Roland Tremblay - Ethnoscop inc

Depuis l'été 2016, des travaux effectuées dans le cadre de différents projets par la Ville de Montréal à l'intersection des rues Sherbrooke et Peel ont mis au jour des vestiges iroquoiens du Saint-Laurent. Leur proximité spatiale avec le site Dawson situé un peu à l'est laisse entrevoir qu'ils sont associés à cette même occupation. Nous proposons une présentation de ces nouvelles données ainsi qu'un examen de leur articulation avec celles qui avaient jadis fait l'objet de récoltes dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle. Quelques implications sur la recherche iroquoianiste dans la région de Montréal seront ainsi mises de l'avant.

Une archéologie sociale identitaire des Iroquoiens de Saint-Anicet : possibilités et limites - A Social Identity Archaeology of the Saint-Anicet Iroquoians : possibilities and limits
Author(s):
  • Claude Chapdelaine - Université de Montréal

La région de Saint-Anicet a connu une longue phase d’acquisition de données sur trois sites villageois entre 1992 et 2017. Les sites McDonald, Droulers et Mailhot-Curran constituent une séquence régionale s’étendant du XIVe au XVIe siècles. La majorité des indices matériels et en particulier la présence de maisons-longues, de la culture du maïs et d’un riche corpus céramique indiquent sans équivoque une identité iroquoienne. Tout en voulant contribuer à une archéologie sociale des communautés en privilégiant la fouille extensive des maisons-longues, les interventions étaient guidées par une conviction voulant que les Iroquoiens de Saint-Anicet appartiennent à un groupe distinct que les archéologues identifient aux Iroquoiens du Saint-Laurent. Cette présentation a pour but de réviser les fondements de cette conviction.

The Saint-Anicet region between 1992 and 2017 received a continuous attention by acquiring a large database on three village sites. The McDonald, Droulers and Mailhot-Curran sites represent a local sequence covering the XIVth to the XVIth centuries. The material evidence and especially the longhouses, the growing of corn and the rich ceramic assemblage indicate without doubt an Iroquoian identity. While the major goal was to build a social archaeology with the extensive excavation of longhouses, the fieldwork was guided by the conviction that the Saint-Anicet Iroquoians were members of a distinct group named by archaeologists as St. Lawrence Iroquoians. This paper will review the foundation of this conviction.

Une présence iroquoienne à l’île Saint-Bernard (BiFk-5) au-delà du Sylvicole Supérieur : étude zooarchéologique d’un site de traite des fourrures.
Author(s):
  • Louis-Vincent Laperrière-Désorcy - Université de Montréal

Une présence iroquoienne sur le site de l’île Saint-Bernard (BiFk-5), à Châteauguay, Québec, est attestée au Sylvicole Supérieur, mais se remarque particulièrement à la période de contact. Un seul établissement occupe les lieux de 1673 à 1703 et les contextes archéologiques fouillés attestent d’une co-présence entre les Mohawks et Français au XVIIe siècle pour y réaliser des activités de traite. Cette conférence présente les résultats des fouilles sur le site BiFk-5 et s’attarde à une analyse zooarchéologique de la collection faunique. L’analyse de 3914 restes squelettiques mammaliens démontre une exploitation faunique très diversifiée par les occupants des lieux. La présence de multiples marques de découpe diagnostiques atteste des comportements alimentaires, mais illustre principalement les pratiques régulières d'extraction de fourrures animales sur le site archéologique. Cette présentation explorera, par une perspective zooarchéologique, divers aspects de la vie courante des occupants mohawks et français à l’île Saint-Bernard.