Poster Session

Date/Time: 
Friday, May 4, 2018 - 1:30pm to 5:50pm
Room: 
Ambassador C
Presentations
Archeology and Memories on Birch Island
Author(s):
  • Julia Brenan - Memorial University
The site of Birch Island has been targeted by the non-profit Healthy Waters Labrador (HWL) and larger Labrador tourism initiative for conservation, environmental education, and commemoration of the former Birch Island settlement. The settlement began in 1942 during military construction when Labradorians moved into the area of Lake Melville, Labrador for work. The settlement was occupied by about 60 families until 1969 when it was resettled under the Fisheries Household Resettlement Program in an effort to centralize and modernize the mostly rural province. Over its existence, the community experienced rapid change and a shift in lifeways due to military expansion in the area. Due to no previous archaeological research being done in the area, the objective of this research was to perform a preliminary investigation of the island utilizing the archaeology of the recent past linking landscape use, lifeways, memory, and archival components of the site to gain a well-rounded perspective and explore the archaeology and history of Birch Island. This will inform the historical interpretation and commemoration planned by HWL for the site. To fulfill this objective, an artifact analysis was done, 17 individuals were formally interviewed, archival sources were looked at, and a map of surface debris from the former settlement was created. The analysis shows the changing landscape, the island’s traditions, and everyday interactions at a level of detail that could not have been achieved without the use of artifact analysis, archives, interviews, and mapping.
Augmented Collections: A Fresh Look at the University of Saskatchewan Archaeological Collections
Author(s):
  • Terence Clark - University of Saskatchewan
This poster demonstrates augmented reality as a useful approach for making inaccessible collections accessible to the public. Using the mobile app Augment, highlights of the University of Saskatchewan’s archaeological collections will be virtually presented to the public for the first time. Hidden archaeological gems will be given the spotlight they deserve through new technologies.
Before Avalon: Palaeoethnobotanical Explorations into Beothuk-European Interactions at 16th-century Ferryland, NL
Author(s):
  • Emma Lewis-Sing - Memorial University of Newfoundland
The nature of Beothuk-European interactions is nothing short of complex. The most circulated narrative tells of Beothuk indigenous peoples moving inland from the central Newfoundland coast so as to distance themselves from the increased presence of Europeans, with whom they came to develop poor relations over contested subsistence resources; isolation from these resources eventually led to Beothuk population decline. The understandings of Beothuk-European interactions upon which these interpretations are based are often reevaluated and revised as new lines of evidence are factored in. This in-progress research project involves a macro-analysis of the palaeoethnobotanical record at the archaeological site of Ferryland, on the east coast of Newfoundland’s Avalon Peninsula, in the hope of contributing to these interpretations. Sediment samples were collected from contexts associated with lithic material manufactured by Beothuk peoples. There is evidence for the presence of European migratory fishers in these same 16th-century strata. Previous subsample analyses of the sediments produced charred grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds. Historical records suggest that European fishers offered raisins to Beothuk peoples they encountered, which might account for deposition of these seeds (Deal & Butt 2002). Therefore, full analysis of the remaining sediments offers the opportunity to further explore this and other hypotheses. Additionally, this research will contribute to the Ferryland narrative before permanent European settlement at what has come to be colloquially known as the ‘Colony of Avalon.’ Reference Cited: Deal, Michael, and Aaron Butt2002   The Great Want: Current Research in Beothuk Palaeoethnobotany. In Hunter-Gatherer Archaeobotany: Perspectives from the Northern Temperate Zone, edited by Sarah L. R. Mason and Jon G. Hather, pp. 15-27. University College London, London.
Bone Accumulation by Contemporary Urban Scavengers in Mississauga: Implications for Archaeological Site Formation and the Interpretation of Historic Faunal Assemblages
Author(s):
  • Trevor Orchard - University of Toronto Mississauga
  • Michael Brand - University of Toronto Mississauga
  • Patryk Weglorz - University of Toronto Mississauga
This poster presents the results of two seasons of systematic mapping and surface collection of a bone scatter located in a forested area of the University of Toronto Mississauga (UTM) campus. The assemblage contains a combination of modern, butchered, domestic animal specimens, and the bones of smaller, wild species common in the local environment. Various lines of evidence suggest that this scatter is the result of ongoing coyote activity, with this location representing a site for the consumption of a combination of discarded table scraps, scavenged from nearby neighborhoods, and local wild species, particularly small rodents, hunted or scavenged from the local environment. This assemblage highlights the range of bones that can be accumulated through coyote behavior in urban environments, and illustrates some of the taphonomic impacts that result. Furthermore, this scatter site is located near several late 19th and early 20th century residential sites that have been investigated over the past five years by the UTM archaeology field school. These investigations have produced similar assemblages of domestic animal remains, raising the possibility for scavenger activity to impact archaeological deposits by contributing similar, but non-contemporaneous, faunal specimens. We outline several implications of such scavenger activity for the formation and interpretation of archaeological faunal assemblages.
Bridging Time: Exploring Saskatoon’s Hidden Heritage
Author(s):
  • Karin Steuber - Saskatchewan Archaeological Society
  • Tomasin Playford - Saskatchewan Archaeological Society
The project presents a widely accessible, dynamic and synthesized historical narrative that better reflects the longevity and diversity of the human experience in Saskatoon through a smartphone app and augmented reality printed maps. The content includes 10 archaeological, 10 First Nation, 10 Métis and 10 settler vignettes. Using archival photos, 3D artifact models and interview clips, the story comes alive for the users of the map and the app. It is also a legacy of the Canada 150 celebrations as it showcases the roles of First Nation, Métis and settler communities in the City of Saskatoon. The multi-media platforms encourage people of all ages to physically explore Saskatoon as they participate in, and contribute to, a shared heritage.
Cambridge Hill Cave: A Preliminary Characterisation of Skeletal Remains
Author(s):
  • Stephanie  Skelton - University of Winnipeg
  • Amber Tetreault - University Of winnipeg
  • Jelani Dennis - University of Winnipeg
  • Maddie  Lischka - University of Winnipeg
  • Steven  Mellor - University of Winnipeg
  • Shereday  Bennet - University of the West Indies
  • John Shorter - University of the West Indies
  • Erica Lee - University of Winnipeg
  • Tyler  Brown - University of Winnipeg
  • Mirjana   Roksandic - University of Winnipeg
The potential of commingled skeletal remains is often overlooked. However, valuable information can be gained from these collections. Cambridge Hill Cave is located east of Kingston, Jamaica and is a likely Taino site. The associated skeletal remains are currently held at the Jamaica National Heritage Trust. Analysis of these remains commenced August 2017, during a University of Winnipeg field school and currently, ½ of this collection has been analysed. The collection is in a commingled state, due to both taphonomic factors and human interference. Thus, the characterisation of this collection centered on intensive analysis of individual elements, as is common in ossuary contexts. This analysis revealed an MNI of 25 individuals, with over 50% scoring female. Almost all individuals showed evidence of cranial manipulation.  Though this collection presents challenges to interpretation, much can be learned about the demography and health of this population. Possibilities for future analysis and methods of correlating individuals are discussed.
Community Emotional Understandings of Canoe River, Lac Seul First Nation Through a Dynamic Land Use and Occupancy Map
Author(s):
  • Holly Fleming - Lakehead University
The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples identifies a duty to protect traditional knowledge. Thus, my thesis research seeks to develop a better understanding of Indigenous land-use in the Lac Seul region of Northwestern Ontario. Specifically, I will address Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) using geospatial methodologies in order to: (1) comprehend sentiments surrounding the abandoned community of Canoe River through interview transcriptions; (2) develop a dynamic land-use and occupancy map based upon emotional constructs of Canoe River; (3) reconstruct the pre-flood ecological data on the landscape as well as the strategic location of this site; and (4) provide Lac Seul First Nation with an interactive map biography. I will employ transcripts from the Community Based Participatory Research of Dowsley and Oliveira (2017). As well, further interviews will be conducted to understand land use and occupancy of the Canoe River site. The questions will focus on the sentiments surrounding Canoe River and the current and past uses of the area, identifying old settlements and other important localities. The proposed study will use ArcGIS and Python programming to illustrate the complex interactions between environment, the culture and the sentiment attachment to Canoe River. Throughout the process, consultation with the Lac Seul First Nation peoples will transpire and the information obtained from the research will be presented to the community. Through this work, these land use maps will better serve the community by providing a digital archive of TEK. The result of the project will create a dynamic map of their emotional connection to Canoe River for future generations of First Nation peoples.
Cranial Modification in Jamaican Taíno remains from the Cambridge Hill Caves, St. Andrews
Author(s):
  • Amber Tetreault - University of Manitoba
  • Audene Brooks - Jamaican National Heritage Trust
  • Ivor Conolley - University of West Indies
  • Mirjana  Roksandic - University of Winnipeg
Taíno skeletal remains from the Cambridge Hill Caves in St. Andrews, Jamaica held at the Jamaican National Heritage Trust (JNHT) were examined during the summer of 2017. This poster provides an overview of cranial deformation in the context of Jamaica, and the preliminary findings on the instances of Cranial Modification occurring in the JNHT Cambridge Hill Cave remains. While authors had noted that there were 24 skulls collected from the cave by C.B. Lewis, of which all were said to exhibit cranial modification, only 19 skulls were present in adequate condition to be examined for cranial modification. Resulting changes to the cranial vault included but was not limited to a combination of; flattening of the frontal, broadening of the skull at the parietals, flattening of the occipital, depressions at sagittal, lambda, and/or post-coronal, and sagittal keeling. The morphological changes in the 19 skulls examined were the result of minimal to extensive levels of different tabular styles of cranial modification, which fits into pre-existing data on practices of cranial modification from the region.
Documenting a possible house feature along the severely eroded shore of Lost Lake.
Author(s):
  • Scott Hamilton - Lakehead U
  • Brad Hyslop
Hyslop’s sustained program of archaeological reconnaissance within the Lac Seul basin has yielded many archaeological sites damaged by hydro-electric flooding. One such site on Lost Lake has yielded three adzes that are stylistically reminiscent of Middle Holocene forms. The site has been severely attacked by wave action, deflating the silt matrix and leaving a cobble lag upon bedrock. Repeated spring archaeological inspections before floodwaters rise have revealed nothing except the three adzes. We speculate that the wave erosion has scoured away the silt, smaller artifacts and clasts.  A large oval accumulation of rocks surrounding a central clast-less area is apparent upon the cobble beach. The feature was documented using low elevation drone photography and photogrammetry to critically address whether it is of human origin, and if so, what the original site configuration might have been like.
Documenting a submerged ring feature using remote sensing methods, Boulevard Lake Reservoir, Thunder Bay.
Author(s):
  • Scott Hamilton - Lakehead U
  • Chris McEvoy - Lakehead U
  • Jason Stephenson - Lakehead U
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and side scan sonar devices were used to document a rock feature as a test of consumer-grade equipment for archaeological documentation. This large C-shaped feature is usually submerged beneath the Boulevard Lake reservoir (created ca. 1905), but it periodically reappears during times of low water. In 2015 the reservoir was nearly drained to permit dam repairs, exposing the rock ring and enabling aerial documentation. In 2016 it was again submerged, and was reinvestigated using side-scan sonar. At issue is the cost-effectiveness and resolution possible with the UAV. The resurvey with side-scan sonar addressed whether a hull-mounted fish finder could detect features in shallow water, and if so, how precisely the geo-referenced unconformities matched features mapped in the UAV images.
Early 19th-Century Gentry Lifeways on the Southern Avalon: The Carter House, Ferryland, Newfoundland
Author(s):
  • Duncan Williams - Memorial University
This poster presents results from the first season of excavation at an early 19th-century dwelling in Ferryland, a rural community in southeastern Newfoundland. This is the first project to (archaeologically) examine some of the changing lifeways on the rural Avalon Peninsula associated with the shift from a migratory fishery to a family-based resident fishery. Using a combination of archaeological data, geospatial methodologies, archival research, and oral history, a micro-historical perspective on a single household during the first half of the 19th century is provided. Research reveals that the imposing structure was associated with a series of prominent individuals including merchants, ship’s captains, and members of public office. Curiously, the site appears to have been abandoned after only a half-century or so of occupation and has largely been erased from public memory.
Examining Trends in Archaeology Enrollment and Graduation Rates: 1992-2012
Author(s):
  • Catherine Jalbert - Memorial University
According to the Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT), the overall enrollment of students in degree-granting programs at Canadian universities reached an all-time high between the years 1992-2003. Within the disciplines of archaeology and anthropology, evidence suggests a similar trend in which departments are both enrolling and graduating students at an increased rate at all levels. Using information obtained from Statistics Canada’s yearly Post-Secondary Information System (PSIS) national survey, I will present aggregated data on overall enrollment and graduation rates for undergraduate and graduate programs that include archaeology for years 1992-2012; this consists of data from standalone archaeology programs, anthropology programs, and classical and ancient studies. Within this, I will include a presentation of these data by university department to highlight differences or changes in program size. Data from the PSIS will also be used to examine binary gendered relationships and age distributions to determine if any trends exist in student demographics.
Kay-Nah-Chi-Wah-Nung Historical Centre – The Place of the Long Rapids
Author(s):
  • Kayleigh  Speirs - Rainy River First Nations
  • Christie Hunter - Rainy River First Nations
  • Tasha Hodgson - Rainy River First Nations
The Kay-Nah-Chi-Wah-Nung Historical Center, the Place of the Long Rapids, is located along the banks of Manidoo ziibii or Spirit River (Rainy River). Also known as Manitou Mounds, the site is a National Historic Site of Canada, and is situated within the largest concentration of known burial mounds in North America. Owned and operated by Rainy River First Nations, the centre provides the community with a unique opportunity to protect and preserve their heritage, while also presenting and educating visitors about Ojibway traditions from their own perspective. The centre features both summer and winter programming including interpretive tours and galleries, groomed skiing and snowshoe trails, and a restaurant serving traditional cuisine.
Micro-refuse Analyses as a Prospecting Method
Author(s):
  • Michael Duncan - Undergraduate Student at Lakehead Univeristy
Conventional approaches to archaeological evaluation involve excavation of shovel test pits, ranging is size from 30 to 50 cm diameter, spaced at 5 or 10 metre intervals, and with ¼ inch screening of backfill. This methodology is quite time consuming, but yields only a small sample size with which to derive interpretations. As an alternative strategy, soil sampling using a coring tool was undertaken (ca. 6.7 cm diameter sample from the top 15 cm of the soil profile with sample spacing at 2 metre intervals). This sediment sampling method enables rapid field collection, but with more time required in lab processing and analysis under more controlled conditions using finer screens. While the coring tool used is only suitable for shallow sites, and site evaluation must await lab processing and analysis, the recovery of minute objects normally discarded in the field is compelling.At issue is whether the information return justifies the additional time required for lab processing and analysis. This was addressed using samples collected from the Martin Bird site where recent field research offers direct comparison of the insight deriving from several alternate site evaluation methods.
Modelling communal bison kill operations using UAV photography: Investigations at the Toews Site, Manitoba.
Author(s):
  • Scott Hamilton - Lakehead University
Communal bison hunting is generally well known in the Great Plains archaeological and ethnographic literature. While often involving use of the landscape to facilitate bison entrapment, modelling these operations can be difficult given ecological transformation and the generally poor quality of site maps. Experimentation with low elevation drone photography and photogrammetry at the Toews Site offers a case study of emerging methodologies to document site localities, and model how landscape was deliberately employed to improve odds of success.
Oalthkyim: A shíshálh Defensive Site on the Northwest Coast
Author(s):
  • Kali E. A. Sielsky - University of Saskatchewan
  • Dr. Terence  Clark
The site of Oalthkyim (DjRw-2), is located in Coast Salish lands on the Northwest Coast of North America, and is thought to be defensive in nature. Excavated as part of the shíshálh Archaeological Research Project (sARP) over the past two years, with research ongoing, I took on the column samples as a part of my independent research project to try to gain an overview of the site in terms of ecological and household factors. Defensive sites are known to be in use from approximately 500-800 B.P. in the Salish Sea region, which coincides with a period of increased warfare and raiding. Used as a means of refuge and protection, these naturally defensible landscapes housed individuals for periods of time until it was safe to return home. My poster will examine the use of defensive sites on the Northwest Coast, the components that distinguish these types of sites from others, why we believe this is a defensive site​, how this specific site relates to others in the area, as well as my research into the living conditions while Oalthkyim was occupied.
Osteological Analysis of Skeletal Remains from Pre-Columbian Jamaica
Author(s):
  • Tyler Brown - The University of Winnipeg
  • Erika Lee - The University of Winnipeg
  • Sherdaye Bennett - The University of the West Indies
  • John Shorter - The University of the West Indies
  • Clive Grey - The University of the West Indies
  • Mirjana Roksandic - The University of Winnipeg
This poster assesses the distribution and preservation of skeletal elements from the James Lee Collection of Pre-contact Jamaica. Data was collected during the summer of 2017, by The University of Winnipeg students who performed assessments and catalogued osteological remains from archaeological excavations across Jamaica as part of their Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee scholarship. In this poster we focus on sites where cranial elements and dentition were found. We produced a quantitative assessment of the geographic distribution for the 107 teeth in The James Lee Collection, provide MNI per site and expanded upon prior analyses of elements to characterise each site. Cranial measurements and non-metric traits were catalogued to bioarchaeological standards. Taphonomic descriptions of all elements in the collection were scored, and any potential pathologies were noted based on standard methods. Photographs were taken of all available cranial elements and dentition for cataloguing and reference purposes. Any postcranial elements exhibiting morphological variation and/or pathological changes were photographed. Photo numbers were recorded in the data sheet for further reference. The stages of development for isolated teeth was determined based on Harris et al. (1990) to calculate an accurate MNI. The full reassessment demonstrates that the James Lee sites contained a variable number of individuals and juveniles, all with variable evidence of gross pathology and cranial modification.
Preliminary analysis of dentition from the Cambridge Hill collection (St. Thomas, Jamaica)
Author(s):
  • Madeline  Lischka - University of Winnipeg
  • Jelani Dennis - University of Winnipeg
  • Steven  Mellor - University of Winnipeg
  • Stephanie Skelton - University of Winnipeg
  • Amber Tetraulta - University of Winnipeg
  • Audine Brooks - Jamaica National Heritage Trust
  • Ivor  Conolley - University of The West Indies
  • Mirjana Roksandic - University of Winnipeg
We present the preliminary results of the dental analysis of the partial collection of remains housed at the Jamaica National Heritage Trust (JNHT) that we examined during the summer research internship with the QES 2017. The Cambridge Hill collection was acquired by JNHT from a local collector, who presumably used explosives on the site in order to collect the remains. The site was previously examined, and the bones were labelled without further analysis. Only 1/3 of the collection was examined during our research visit due to time constraints. We catalogued the remains using the Standards for Data Collection for Human Skeletal Remains. Material was photographed and recorded using a Samsung S7 and a Canon Dslr. The assemblage consisted of unassociated skulls, teeth and long bones of an indigenous pre-Columbian population. Based on dental remains, we calculated an MNI of 11 for the three areas marked by different numbers, and of 3 from an area marked as “unknown”. The presence of caries, calculus, and occlusal surface wear were recorded. The incisor shoveling was most commonly observed of the morphological features. We discuss the possible archaeological implications of this collection.
Salt Hay (Spartina spp.) in Acadian Animal Husbandry
Author(s):
  • Eric  Guiry - University of British Columbia
  • Stéphane Noël - Université Laval
  • John Fowler - Saint Mary’s University
Success with animal husbandry is often considered a key variable in understanding how and why early New World settlements succeeded or failed. However, many aspects of past animal husbandry practices, such as foddering strategy, can leave little or no archaeological traces and can therefore be difficult to reconstruct. Fodder, particularly hay production, was an important element of early Acadian husbandry success and focused partly on naturally occurring marsh grasses (Spartina spp.) called ‘salt hay’. Salt hay became so important in the context of coastal Acadian husbandry strategies that methods for harvesting and winter preservation of salt hay were developed and large dikes were constructed, in part, to increases these grasses’ productivity. Unlike most other grasses used for hay production in northern environments, salt hay species possess a photosynthetic pathway (C4) that makes them, and the animals that feed on them, isotopically distinctive. We use stable carbon isotope analyses of bone collagen from archaeological cattle (n = 103) as well as sheep and goats (n = 70) from five Acadian archaeological sites to establish the presence and importance of salt hay use during the seventeenth to eighteenth centuries in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Results suggest that fodder for 60% of cattle included salt hay. In contrast, only 5% sheep and goats consumed a significant amount of salt hay. Our findings provide a new baseline for assessing the importance of salt hay use, and coastal marsh environments more generally, in historical contexts in early colonial northeastern North America.
“Islands of Exception”: Uncovering the Maritime Cultural Landscape of Saint-Pierre et Miquelon, 1670-1970
Author(s):
  • Meghann Livingston - Memorial University of Newfoundland
Although long viewed as a peripheral French settlement, the islands of Saint-Pierre et Miquelon were in fact an essential component to colonial expansion throughout the Atlantic World. Saint-Pierre’s sheltered harbour among other geographic features including the islands’ close proximity to the Grand Banks, made them an ideal place for carrying out various shore-based activities associated with the cod fishery for hundreds of years. Saint-Pierre et Miquelon was known to have year-round settlers as early as 1670 and would become the only remaining French permanent settlement within the region following 1763. These small islands continued to supply cod to the Metropole well into the 20th century, beyond the end of the French migratory fishery in Newfoundland in 1904. They are also the only part of Colonial New France to remain under French governance today. Given this history and its changing role within the French North Atlantic World, Saint-Pierre et Miquelon can be viewed not only as an integral part of the historic French cod fishery but also as a unique cultural landscape within its own right. As part of the first-long term historical archaeology endeavour on the islands, this research focuses on changes that went on at a particular site called Anse à Bertrand in Saint-Pierre, which has revealed evidence of occupation from the late 17th to late 20th century. This poster explores the unique cultural landscape of Saint-Pierre et Miquelon and how it has changed over these centuries from the perspective of our current study area, Anse à Bertrand.