Collaborations and Corroborations in CRM

Thursday, May 3, 2018 - 9:10am to 11:30am
Ambassador G
Any successful person will say that they couldn’t have done it without the help of a few friends. Consulting archaeology is no different; we often find ourselves collaborating with people from First Nations, and/or other companies, disciplines, and industries, as well as applying new technologies that are not as regularly used in archaeology. This can result in better results and/or improved relations, making what we do that much greater. This session will bring together recent collaborations in CRM, showing how working together can help provide further evidence (corroborations) to those answers that we seek.
  • Margarita J. de Guzman, M.A., Circle CRM Group Inc.
09:10 AM: Recent technological advancements for the systematic sampling of wet sites in New Brunswick
  • Chelsea Colwell-Pasch - Colbr Consulting Inc.
  • Brent D. Suttie - Archaeological Services Branch, Government of New Brunswick
  • Vanessa P, Sullivan - Colbr Consulting Inc.
  • Tricia Jarratt - Archaeological Services Branch, Government of New Brunswick
Traditionally, comprehensive sub-surface testing strategies for archaeological impact assessments in New Brunswick’s coastal and interior wetlands have encountered both methodological and logistical barriers. These barriers contribute to a lack of archaeological data in an important ecozones typically found within, or on the periphery, of areas deemed to have a high archaeological sensitivity per predictive modelling. In New Brunswick, recent innovations in mechanical testing strategies have produced the first successful commercial systematic sub-surface testing project in a wetland that has been slatted for infrastructure development. This paper will discuss mechanical testing at wet sites, addressing the traditional issues of systematic sampling, the methodological benefits and limitations of mechanical testing, and the data collected from mechanical wet site sampling. In addition, the paper will address the potential impact of introducing routine wet site testing into the scope of future archaeological work within the Province.
09:30 AM: Boots on the Ground – The use of geotechnical studies to inform cultural resource management work in Edmonton, Alberta
  • Gareth Spicer - Turtle Island CRM
This presentation is a follow up to my 2017 contribution to the urban archaeology session in Gatineau.  Cultural resource concerns in relation to development projects in Alberta’s urban areas are often difficult to establish.  The absence of concern is founded upon the assumption that intact sediment in which cultural deposits are preserved will not be present due to modern development.  This condition persists despite an extensive body of work to the contrary.As a solution to this problem, Turtle Island CRM has collaborated with geotechnical contractors on several infrastructure development Projects in Edmonton, Alberta.  Geotechnical analysis includes the collection of sediment samples from locations throughout a development footprint.  Inspection of these samples has proven an effective method to determine the location of previously disturbed and intact sediments beneath contemporary over burden.  By leveraging geotechnical studies, Turtle Island CRM has established the location of potentially intact and cultural bearing sediments impacted by development projects in Edmonton.  In turn, this has justified and given credibility to cultural resource field assessments in association to these projects.In the 2018 presentation I will illustrate this approach through the discussion of multiple infrastructure Projects carried out on behave of the City of Edmonton where geotechnical samples were utilized to inform recommendations for cultural resource work.  I will discuss the sites recorded as a result of this collaboration and their implications to cultural resource work in Edmonton.
09:50 AM: Water Level Management on the Rainy River and Indirect Impacts to Archaeological Sites
  • Carla Parslow - Golder
Preliminary archaeological research was conducted in 2015 and 2016 for the International Joint Committee to study the impact of existing water level management strategies to prevent floods (Rule Curves, 2000) at the Fort Francis / International Falls Dam on archaeological sites along the Rainy River.The study had three main tasks: collecting data on known archaeological sites on the U.S. and Canadian parts of the river; integrating the data with the results of the hydrologic and hydraulic analyses of the river; and determining and documenting how previous and current water level management conditions affect the archaeological sites on the river.The results of the study show that water levels prescribed by current water level management strategies do not directly impact the sites, and that there is no measurable differences in the pre-dam levels, management strategies implemented in 1970 or the current strategies on potential impacts to archaeological sites. Despite these results, there is observed erosion and, consequently, cultural vulnerability of some archaeological sites. This erosion is the result of several factors that, while not being directly associated with the Fort Francis / International Falls Dam and water level management strategies, can be indirectly influenced by them. For example, prescribed water level management strategies to control flooding can prevent build-up of sediment deposits, leading to erosion.
10:30 AM: Collaborations in CRM from a Mi’kmaw perspective
  • Kaitlin MacLean - Kwilmu’kw Maw-klusuaqn Negotiation Office (KMKNO)
Collaborations with Cultural Resource Management firms and proponents are an essential part of honorable and meaningful consultation and engagement. Our work at the Kwilmu’kw Maw-klusuaqn Negotiation Office (KMKNO) Archaeology Research Division (ARD) includes research, repackaging of traditional information to protect the property rights of traditional knowledge keepers, site visits, field work, community liaison work and collaborative research design. The ARD has been given the mandate to protect archaeological resources, burials and sacred sites by the Assembly of Nova Scotia Mi’kmaq Chiefs. This paper presents and discusses some of these activities in important engagement work which offers a host of opportunities and challenges to be addressed from a Mi’kmaw perspective.
10:50 AM: "Lodges of Time and Space" -- the Stone Cairns of Red Wing
  • Michael Bergervoet - University of Kansas / Minnesota Dept. of Transportation
The stone cairns of Red Wing, Minnesota, USA, have been cloaked in mystery for centuries. Small in number, densely concentrated and originally built upon high, untimbered hilltops, the identity of the builders remains unknown to both researchers and Native people alike. Local Dakota people do not claim authorship but refer to these monuments as “hekti”, a “lodge of time and space”, and recognize them as places “where holy works were done.” Unfortunately all of the stone cairns have been dismantled since Euro-Americans first encountered them and the significance of their hollow architecture was never culturally examined. After collecting/generating both quantitative and qualitative information and through the aid of Native consultants, it is contended the stone cairns of Red Wing were constructed by the Spring Creek Oneota between AD 1300 – 1400. Furthermore, the stone cairns are principal components of a larger ritual landscape and quite possibly demarcate a physical and spiritual sanctuary during a period of significant environmental and/or social change across the continent. From an ethnographic perspective the stone cairns of Red Wing function as sacred altars/conduits between the Above and Below worlds. This assertion is based upon Siouan interpretations of their profile, placement, architecture, and spiritual significance of materials used in their construction. Altogether, these results suggest the stone cairns of Red Wing stand as witness to the cultural crescendo of the Oneota tradition in this locality and/or they are an initial expression of Ioway ethnicity and tribalism in southeastern Minnesota.
11:10 AM: Reciprocal Benefits: Excavating alongside the Cree in Hardisty, AB
  • Rob Wondrasek - Atlatl Archaeology
  • Rachel Lindemann - Atlatl Archaeology
From 2013 to 2015, Atlatl Archaeology conducted year round excavations at several sites which are part of a larger, multi-component aggregation site within the Battle River valley outside of Hardisy, AB. As the project was within traditional Cree territory, the four Cree Bands from Maskwacis, AB (Samson Cree Nation, Ermineskin Cree Nation, Louis Bull Tribe, and Montana First Nation) each provided representatives who participated in the excavations. Elders from the four bands were consulted prior to the start of excavations and they made bimonthly field visits to the site to help interpret our findings. The site produced a number of features that were rare or unique for Alberta, including a large animal burrow backfilled with over 1,117 faunal remains including 9 bison skulls, portions of three canids, 77 lithics (including 9 tools), and a large portion of a pottery vessel. A small habitation structure measuring 2.5 m long and 1.5 m wide was also identified. Lastly, a number of unique projectile points recovered from an occupation located two meters below surface which had O.S.L. dates of 7,800 B.P. Input from First Nation excavators and Elders resulted in a much more detailed interpretation of these finds, and the overall area, than would have been possible without their input and participation.