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The Mantle Site: Urban Planning in Sixteenth Century Ontario

Publication Type:

Conference Paper


Toronto (2006)


From 2003 through 2005, Archaeological Services Inc. completed salvage excavations of a large, sixteenth century Iroquoian town, situated south of Stouffville, Ontario. Excavations revealed a four hectare settlement containing 82 house structures, at least 52 of which were occupied at one time, 1400 pit features and several middens, all encircled by a multiple-rowed palisade. More than 40,000 posts were used in the construction of the village and there is evidence of a waste-stream system likely designed to lengthen the period of time that the site could be occupied. The cosmopolitan nature of the site is evidenced by a series of modelled human effigies on ceramic vessels usually found on contemporaneous Oneida villages in New York State.