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The Bead Hill Site (AkGs-5, 8): An Historic Seneca Component on the North Shore of Lake Ontario

Publication Type:

Conference Paper


London (1992)


This paper describes the history of discoveries and investigations at the Bead Hill site, an historic Seneca comportent on the Lower Rouge River on the eastern fringe of Metropolitan Toronto. In part, the paper details the methods and results of limited test excavations carried out on behalf of the Canadian Parks Service and the National Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada in 1991. The collective investigations of this site have recovered in excess of 3000 arfifacts, including a wide range of European trade goods, among them 278 glass beads. Analyses demonstrate that this material is consistent with the time span indicated by historical documentation for the Seneca occupation of the Lower Rouge, ca. A.D. 1669-1687. The site is strategically situated, commanding the base of the eastern branch of the Passage de Toronto: the Rouge trail. Research indicates that Bead Hill may well represent the historically documented village of Ganestiguiagon, one of the seven villages of the Iroquois du Nord which were established on the north shore of Lake Ontario in the decade following 1665.