Zoomorphic Imagery in the Ancient Art of the European Northeast, Toronto, 2006
– Tatiana Istomina
Images of animals and birds occupied a central place in the ancient mythology of the peoples who lived in the boreal forest zone of the far northeast of Europe. The earliest animistic images, tiny stone sculptures of animals, birds, and fish, called "figure flints", were recorded in the archaeological sites of the Bronze Age (III- II millennium BC). During the Early Iron Age and the Early Middle Ages (I millennium BC- I millennium AD) the animistic imagery appears on artefacts of the so called Permian Animal Style. These artifacts are metal plates with semantically complex images reflecting the mythological concept of the Universe. The images represent certain animal and bird species with an image of man-animal-bird on them; each image taking its fixed place within the mythological scheme. Images of another set of animals and birds became popular during the late Middle Ages (Perm Vychegodskaya culture, XI-XIV cent. AD). They appear on the basal parts of women's "noisy" metal pendants, representing most commonly horse and duck. The paper discusses the links between the animistic imagery of Finno-Ugric and Indo-Iranian mythologies.
Large Stemmed Points from the Peace River Country, Northwestern Alberta, Toronto, 2006
– Jack W. Ives, and Darryl Bereziuk
The Poohkay collection consists of large, quartzite stemmed points and other artifacts from a small knoll situated in the forks of the Peace and Smoky Rivers. Manufacturing strategy and patination suggest that the assemblage is of Early Prehistoric Period age. The Poohkay specimens resemble Sluiceway points from Alaska, but more precise similarities lie with the Western Stemmed Point tradition of the Great Basin and adjacent regions. The site is situated on a landform of glaciolacustrine origin, involving the mass movement of deposits near the floor of Glacial Lake Peace. The chronology of Glacial Lake Peace is uncertain, so that it is not clear when the site vicinity was available for habitation. The pattern of settlement-within a glacial lake basin-resembles that for other early points in western Canada, perhaps reflecting the attractiveness of such terrain to game populations.
Changes and Continuities in Andean Rituality: The Cult of Catequil, Toronto, 2006
– Daniella Jofre
The cult of Catequil was documented by chronicles of the early sixteenth century as a widely venerated oracle from the central and northern Andes region. Catequil was considered a supernatural being, thunder and lightning deity, and founder ancestor from the Huamachuco area, who was worshipped during the Late Intermediate Period and Late Horizon (AD 670 to 1560). Excavations in San José de Porcón during 1998 uncovered what has been referred to as the shrine of Catequil at the Namanchugo site below the base of Cerro Icchal's mountaintop. It is argued that the construction of this site mimics the mountain and would reflect the development of an Andean place of ritual. My research has focussed in the process of construction and the nature of ritual at the Namanchugo site. For this paper, I argue that the historical development of the cult is linked to the ceremonial landscape in the area, and that the nature of ritual changed as the oracular aspect of Catequil became entangled with events in Inca court politics.
Archaeological Longevity of Trail Use on the Canadian Prairies: The Roche Percée to Wood End Trail in Saskatchewan, Toronto, 2006
– Steven Kaastan
Archaeological remains of an 18-kilometre long trail have been identified in southeastern Saskatchewan, situated between Roche Percée and Wood End. The trail is anchored at one end by the sacred rock art site of Roche Percée along the Souris River, and on the opposite terminus at a former bend of Long Creek called Wood End. Originally, it appears that it was used as a dog-days travois pathway. Fifty-two pre-contact archaeological sites have coalesced in close proximity to the trail; 28 of these are habitation sites containing a total of 442 stone circles. Some of these stone circles are in association with Besant complex and Late Side-notched projectile points. A First Nation map drawn by John Crazy Mule depicts the trail in use at 1880 AD. Therefore, First Nations have travelled the trail from circa 0 to 1880 AD.
Boulder Structures: Miscellaneous Seasonal Occupations or a Key to the Labrador Inuit Occupation of the Coast?, Toronto, 2006
– Susan Kaplan
Rectangular and oval boulder structures have been found throughout Labrador. They are difficult to deal with, for they are often built in boulder fields and there is little to no material culture associated with many of them. However, ground slate, nephrite, and soapstone implements of the Thule tradition have been recovered in a handful of structures. This paper examines what we know about the structures, their distribution along the length of the coast, and what they might tell us about the earliest Labrador Inuit's use of the region.
Spatial Analysis of Magdelenian Sites in the Paris Basin, Toronto, 2006
– Dustin Keeler
The refitting of lithic materials is a research approach that can provide information for a variety of uses, including examinations of post-depositional disturbances and interpretations of spatial division of activities within a site. While most lithic refitting analysis is performed in an effort to understand the chaîne opératoire or stages of production, the incorporation of this data into spatial analyses, especially in a GIS environment, can be useful in understanding many more aspects of a site. One of the main benefits of this type of analysis is a better understanding of the temporal use of space within occupation surfaces through an examination of refit sequence data. The spatial analysis of lithic refitting data from the Late Upper Palaeolithic site of Verberie in the Paris Basin demonstrates the utility of these applications.
Changing Perspectives on Early Population Movements in Atlantic Canada, Toronto, 2006
– David Keenlyside
Recently published early post-glacial data from northern Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island by Stea and Mott (2005), detailing the nature and extent of the Younger-Dryas Re-advance, appears to add significant new constraints on early occupation of this region. This paper discusses archaeological implications and examines various models for peopling of the Maritimes and more broadly, the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Growing archaeological evidence in the Gulf of St. Lawrence's north coast indicates earlier and broader influences across the Gulf region of early marine-adapted peoples.
Changing Patterns in Iroquoian Chert Acquisition in Southwestern Ontario, Toronto, 2006
– James R. Keron
Chert type frequency and debitage morphology are examined across 42 Iroquoian sites in southwestern Ontario. The amount of chert from various sources is examined through time and space and across various types of sites looking for patterns both between sites and within sites. During Glen Meyer times a direct embedded acquisition pattern of Kettle Point chert is evident. Groups from the east of the study area could pass freely through intervening groups to acquire chert with distance being the only factor determining the quantity used. A transition to a down-the-line exchange pattern controlled by lineages takes place during the Middle Ontario Iroquoian stage coincident with other significant changes in social organization indicative of increasing complexity. Also, at that time, there is a general constriction in the accessibility of Kettle Point chert. Use of this chert rebounds through time to an almost obsessive use at the late precontact Lawson site.
Oral Tradition, Archaeology and Social Memory, Toronto, 2006
– Liam Kilmurray
The relationship between oral history and archaeology has long been characterized by friction and claims of incompatibility. Much of the discussion revolves around the applicability of the constructs from oral history to archaeological interpretation and analysis. In this paper I will highlight cases in which some oral histories have contributed significantly to archaeological understanding. By way of bridging the gap between oral history and archaeology, I address the role of oral tradition in the interpretation of Neolithic monuments in Ireland. I argue that social memory acts as a driving force for much of the archaeological record and also for much of oral history. Monuments and funerary events play a large role in structuring social memory and social identity. To highlight the role of oral tradition in these areas, I examine the role of social memory among the proto and historic Huron peoples of Ontario. I address the issue of how oral history has aided archaeology, and I attempt to unite oral history and the material record with social memory
Local Governments and Archaeology: The Perspectives of First Nations and Municipal Councillors in the Fraser Valley, B.C., Toronto, 2006
– Amanda King, and Dana Lepofsky
This presentation explores the diversity of local government perspectives on archaeology in the Fraser Valley, British Columbia. In 2005, First Nations and Municipal councillors participated in surveys and interviews about their opinions on archaeology and heritage management. The results provide insights into how decision-makers perceive the value of local archaeology and may encourage a dialogue among local governments on the management of archaeological heritage. Although some councillors do not view heritage management as a critical community issue, the vast majority of respondents do believe that they will be able to work with local First Nations or Municipal councils on the management of archaeological heritage. Effective heritage management is particularly crucial for the Fraser Valley, as it is one of the fastest developing regions in British Columbia and home to distinct communities with different interests over the same archaeological resources.
The Application of GIS for Predictive Modelling of Archaeological Sites, Toronto, 2006
– Hope Kron
GIS applications have been used frequently in recent years to aid in archaeological research. Research involving GIS includes spatial analyses, investigations of trade networks, population movement studies, and more. Despite such popularity, however, many archaeologists are not familiar with GIS and its potential. One aspect that has rarely been investigated is the possibility of using GIS software for predicting particular patterns of distribution of features in an archaeological site. In this paper I will address the potential of utilizing ArcGIS, a popular GIS software program, to create predictive simulations of distribution patterns. I will begin by providing a brief overview of the history of GIS within archaeology. I will then discuss potential applications of GIS for archaeology. Finally, I will discuss the use of ArcGIS to predict random and non-random distributions of features in a site. I will conclude by suggesting future avenues of research in archaeology incorporating GIS applications.
"Spirit Camp" Studying the Future Through the Past: A Stó:l_ Perspective, Toronto, 2006
– MaryLou T. Lafleur
The Internet has become an important medium for disseminating information about archaeology. Research into the use of the Internet by archaeologists is in its infancy. This thesis presents a first attempt to examine the opinions of descendant populations on archaeological content websites. The "Spirit Camp" website project was created to explore reactions to two different methods of conveying information via the Web. Members of the Chehalis and Stó:l_; First Nations were interviewed using focus groups. This thesis comparatively discusses the feedback attained from Chehalis and Stó:l_; about the websites and the dissemination of knowledge about their ancestors via the internet.
Starch Grain Residue Analysis, Toronto, 2006
– Dyan H. Laskin Grossman
Plant residue analysis is a new and growing subset of lithic use-wear analyses. Residues are extracted to reveal the association between artifacts and plant materials. One plant residue receiving particular attention is starch, which is especially key in areas where root vegetables are important to subsistence as they leave few other traces in the archaeological record. There are various factors that can influence the preservation of starches on stone tools; however, many are not being taken into account in quantifying starch remains. This paper addresses some of the current work on starch grains, directions for improving the reliability of starch residue study results, and the need for experimental studies. A particular focus is on the ways in which the properties of the lithic materials themselves can influence preservation.
Community Archaeology in Canada, Toronto, 2006
– Joanne Lea
Public archaeology in Canada has a history covering several decades and a variety of purposes. These include providing accountability to funders such as taxpayers; promoting the protection of archaeological resources; implementing public policy; serving as a vehicle for socio-economic development and addressing issues of ethics and social justice. To date, there has been little discussion about the theoretical framework for public archaeology, as practised in Canada. How is public archaeology defined? How indeed is the public defined? What impact do these definitions have upon method and the implementation of public archaeology programming? The Canadian Archaeological Association (CAA) undertook a mandate for public outreach and education at its 1999 meeting in Whitehorse in addition to a Statement of Principles for Ethical Conduct Pertaining to Aboriginal Peoples, published in 1997. As the national body for Canadian archaeology, the CAA here provides a forum for the examination of the Canadian context for public archaeology theory and practice. One aspect of public archaeology is community archaeology. Again, the terminology is widely defined from region to region and includes communities of First Nations and other descendant populations, communities in geographic proximity to archaeological sites and communities of interest in archaeology. All such communities are enveloped within the CAA's public outreach mandates. This paper will discuss theoretical bases in interpretive and post-colonial archaeologies that are applicable for Canadian public archaeology and will examine the definitions used for public archaeology by stakeholders in its practice.
What's the Point? Variant Palaeoeskimo Architecture, Toronto, 2006
– Genevieve M. LeMoine, Christyann M. DARWENT, John Darwent, and Hans Lange
Linear arrangements of stones, known variously as midpassages or axial features, are common to many Palaeoeskimo cultures. These features exhibit considerable variation in space and time, but are typically rectangular arrangements of slabs incorporating a hearth or lamp stand, centrally located in a dwelling. During recent survey work in Northwest Greenland we identified a variant form, in which the long sides converge to a point rather than running parallel. At least one similar feature is known on Devon Island. In this paper we present the chronological and spatial distribution of these features, and examine some possible reasons for their appearance.
Tavern Society in 18th-Century Ferryland, Newfoundland, Toronto, 2006
– Barbara Leskovec
Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, Ferryland was a thriving entrepôt that welcomed the arrival of fishing ships each and every summer sent to exploit the abundant codfish resource. Ongoing archaeological excavations have revealed a multitude of historic features at the site, including the remains of an 18th century tavern. Taverns played an integral role during the early modern period as community centres for entertainment, social interaction and business activities. The artifacts recovered from the tavern site, their function and sources will be presented. Inferences will be made about the tavernkeeper, the services offered at the tavern and the general consumption patterns of the clientele to provide insight into the social milieu of 18th century Ferryland.
A Reflexive Account of the Collaborative Process: Indigenous Archaeology in the Western Arctic, Toronto, 2006
– Natasha L. Lyons
The tides of social change have profoundly influenced the ways that archaeologists conduct relationships with Indigenous communities, yet we seldom hear about the processes that attend the development of successful research partnerships. This paper will provide a reflexive account of the development of an Indigenous Archaeology with Inuvialuit people from the Western Arctic communities of Aklavik and Inuvik, Northwest Territories. This work has entailed collecting traditional knowledge related to Inuvialuit material culture and locating venues to share this information with youth, administrators, and educators. The paper will examine the processes involved in initiating a collaborative project with the Inuvialuit and the challenges of developing and executing a research design while maintaining good community relations. In closing, the paper will evaluate the utility of a participatory action research methodology in this context and comment on the prospects and directions for an Indigenous Archaeology in the Western Arctic.
Clachans in Ontario: The Maintenance of a Traditional Irish Settlement System in the New World, Toronto, 2006
– Eva MacDonald, Katherine Hull, and David Robertson
The dislocation of rural society in Ireland, England and Scotland occurred after 1820 on a large scale, causing the province of Ontario to become, to some extent, a by-product of a complex interplay of demography, and shifts in land tenure and economy. It has been postulated that immigration to Ontario represented an opportunity for those dislocated to continue a way of life that was lost, and that the goals and values of immigrants were conservative. In terms of settlement patterns, such conservatism is not generally apparent, given the formal system of land allotment by the government of Upper Canada. Nevertheless, within a small area of the former Gore of Toronto Township, archaeological investigations have revealed a settlement pattern more reminiscent of the Irish clachan system than those typical of rural Ontario in the nineteenth century.
Evidence of Plant Resource Use at Rivers Inlet British Columbia, Toronto, 2006
– Brandi Lee MacDonald
Preliminary analysis of auger samples from the Wuikinuxv (Oweekeno) village site of Katit (EkSt-1) on Rivers Inlet on the central coast of British Columbia has yielded several deposits of well-preserved seeds. This site was in use from the late Pre-European contact period through to the early twentieth century. Analyses of the seeds show at least five different plant species present in the midden deposits. The specimens include both food and non-food species that are present in considerable quantities, indicating relatively intensive procurement of these plant resources. This redundant and low-diversity assemblage of plant remains is in contrast to the results of other studies (Lepofsky et al. 2003; Bonzani 1997) in which up to forty-two different plant taxa have been identified at sites of a similar type. Redundant and low-diversity assemblages are more typically identified at smaller, specific-purpose sites. A number of alternative explanations may account for the Katit pattern.
Metric Comparisons of Microblade Cores from the Canadian West Coast, Toronto, 2006
– Martin P. R. Magne, Tina CHRISTENSEN, Andrew Mason, and John MAXWELL
Recent excavations of microblade sites at Elsie Lake on Vancouver Island and at Saltery Bay on the Sunshine Coast have greatly expanded the Canadian west coast sample of microblade cores. Saltery Bay provides a date of 6750 BP but Elsie Lake is as yet undated. Using data previously compiled for Haida Gwaii, interior British Columbia, and published data, multivariate metric analyses are used to examine temporal trends in microblade core morphology on the Northwest Coast from ca. 8900 to 6000 BP.
Indigenous Oral History: Muse or Discipline?, Toronto, 2006
– Susan MARSDEN
This paper discusses a methodological approach to oral historical research outside of the traditional disciplines of anthropology and ethnography, an approach inherent in the indigenous knowledge itself. The paper examines two series of oral texts and the cultural, geographical and linguistic knowledge that reveal their historical content. The second of these has been the foundation for the Dundas Island project discussed in other papers in this session.
Working Together? First Nations and Culture Resource Management in Southern Ontario, Toronto, 2006
– Holly Martelle
This paper will provide a personal perspective on the relationship between First Nations and cultural resource management archaeologists in southern Ontario. It is, in part, a response to recent criticisms regarding the lack of First Nations involvement in archaeology. Using examples from partnerships developed with First Nations involved in our own firm's projects, the paper will attempt to tease out some of the more complex and logistical issues that arise in a cultural resource management context. It will explore the possibility of "partnership" and what that might entail with respect to the day-to-day operations of archaeological practice and project management. Recent projects can shed light on what is needed to develop stronger and more equal partnerships, as well as better systems of communication and consultation.
Of Bifurcates and Burnt Chert: Two Early-Middle Archaic Sites in Paris, Ontario, Toronto, 2006
– Holly Martelle
The Farrugie and Leschuck-Weisz Sites, located near the Nith River in Paris, Ontario, were excavated in the summer of 2003. Both sites appear to date to the Early to Middle Archaic transition based on the presence of Stanly Stemmed points (weakly bifurcated stemmed projectile points). Sites of this time period and cultural affiliation are very rare in Ontario. The sites produced evidence of a complex settlement pattern that included a base camp (the Farrugie Site) and three smaller activity areas (the Leschuck-Weisz Site). The vast majority of the artifacts from the sites bear evidence of extensive thermal alteration.
Quantifying Defensiveness at Defended Sites on the North Coast, Toronto, 2006
– Andrew Martindale
The identification and classification of habitation sites as defended or fortified is commonly based on the presence of morpho-functional architectural or landscape features. Since it is well know that architecture, architectural locations, and architectural components frequently present symbolic, polysemic, and multi-functional aspects, there is a need for a comparative method for identifying the functional defensiveness of potentially defended sites. Using examples from the Northwest Coast, I propose a series of quantifiable architectural measures which may serve as proxies for defensibility and may have potential for identifying and classifying defensive sites.
The Coming of the Stored Salmon Economy to Crescent Beach, B.C., Toronto, 2006
– R. G. Matson
The stored salmon economy has long been known to be the basis of the economy of the peoples of the Northwest Coast and Plateau Culture Areas. It is now apparent that the transition to this economy occurred between 3000 and 4000 BP. We chose to investigate this transition at Crescent Beach because it was continuously occupied between 4000 and 2000 BP. Using techniques developed by L. Ham to obtain detailed subsistence information from individual natural layers, we found that the diversity of important resources was reduced when evidence of salmon storage occurred, and that salmon importance increased along with a shift from an apparent foraging to a logistic economy, albeit at different times than expected.