Maritime Peninsula Lithic Material Acquisition and Exchange: Looking Through the Bliss Island Lens, Toronto, 2006
– David W. Black, Elissa L. Atkinson, and Elizabeth N. Gorman
During the past two decades, exploring patterns of lithic material acquisition and exchange has become a significant focus of prehistoric archaeological research on the Maritime Peninsula. Studies have determined sources of specific lithic materials, as well as local and subregional exploitation patterns of those materials. Progress also is being made in tracing distributions of specific exotic materials, and defining suites of lithic materials within specific periods and subregions. Although the details are only now beginning to emerge, it appears that, through time, Native people participated in a series of lithic material acquisition and exchange systems. These systems varied in scale and duration; they sometimes developed within the Maritime Peninsula, and sometimes intersected it from outside. Here we examine variability in the lithic material assemblages of a single point in the Maritimes landscape-the Bliss Islands group, Quoddy Region, N.B.-produced through Native participation in lithic material acquisition and exchange systems from the Terminal Archaic through the Late Maritime Woodland.
Inside the Jemseg Crossing Project, Toronto, 2006
– Susan Blair, and Christopher R. Blair
Oral traditions and widely disseminated anecdotes often develop around large, complex excavation projects. In some cases, however, important stories are less widely circulated. In this paper, we will present an insider's view of some of the key events of the Jemseg Crossing Archaeology Project. This project was both contentious and innovative. It involved unprecedented levels of cooperation between the Province of New Brunswick, and Wolastoqiyik individuals and communities, and has been the largest mitigation project in Atlantic Canada to date. A key to the many successes of this project was the diplomacy, support and vision of Dr. Chris Turnbull.
Introduction to "Nurturing Archaeology in the Maritimes" and the Career of Chris Turnbull, Toronto, 2006
– Susan Blair, and David W. Black
When Dr. Christopher Turnbull began his tenure as Provincial Archaeologist for New Brunswick in 1972, there was little in the way of archaeological policy, legislation, infrastructure, or research in the province. He personally assumed a mandate to build the best archaeological program in the country, and for the next 30 years, he pursued this goal with imagination, dedication and passion. He developed systematic, strong relationships with First Nations communities and individuals. He nurtured archaeological researchers, both within government, and within Canadian Universities. He created a structure and organization for the effective administration of heritage resource management. All this he accomplished with little acclaim or recognition. In this session we will review these accomplishments, and reflect on the significant impact that Chris Turnbull has had on Canadian archaeology.
Community Archaeology at Bonnechere Provincial Park and Murphy's Point Provincial Park, Toronto, 2006
– Ellen Blaubergs
The evolution and results of a one-week integrated educational archaeology opportunity at Bonnechere Provincial Park in 2001 will be discussed and evaluated. This unique experiential program served as the catalyst for an even more structured and focussed approach at Murphy's Point Provincial Park in 2004 and 2005. Various complimentary program components will be highlighted and critiqued. These will be incorporated into a proposal for a "new community archaeology", and its pertinence to elementary school classes.
A Dugout Canoe from Northeastern New Brunswick, Toronto, 2006
– Vincent Bourgeois
A remarkably well-preserved dugout canoe was recently recovered from a coastal context near Val Comeau in Northeastern New Brunswick. Details of the canoe and the peculiar circumstances of its discovery are presented. Two radiocarbon dates ranging between 440 and 400 B.P. date the canoe to the early historic period. Also discussed are the implications of such a unique find within local and broader regional contexts.
Faded, but not Lost: An Exploration of Rock-Art Patterning Using Digital Technology in the Torres Strait Islands, Northeast Queensland, Australia, Toronto, 2006
– Liam Brady
Rock paintings from the Torres Strait islands in tropical far northeast Queensland are subject to a harsh coastal weathering regime. Many of these fragile images have faded due to accelerated coastal processes such as water and salt damage and are no longer visible to the naked eye. The systematic application of computer enhancement techniques to rock paintings recorded across Western Torres Strait over a four-year period has identified a previously undetectable north-south pattern in the proportion of faded paintings recovered using this technique. This patterning, taken in combination with a north-south division in Western Torres Strait geology, is used to reveal broader spatial and temporal patterns in the Torres Strait region. I argue that this systematic recording methodology attends to the preservation and conservation aspects of rock-art research, and can also be used to inform researchers of new or previously unidentifiable trends into the patterning of rock-art across space and through time.
Multi-Site Faunal Analysis at the Dundas Island Group, Toronto, 2006
– Natalie Brewster
A multi-site analysis of faunas is used to understand the long-term subsistence practices at the Dundas Island Group. This method of analysis can give insight into subsistence over the entire region, as well as variability between sites and site types. Preliminary faunal data from a series of shell midden sites present a profile of fish use at the Dundas Island Group and suggest the relative importance of salmon, herring and eulachon. These findings are compared with existing views and evidence of the pattern and development of fishing economies in the adjacent Prince Rupert region.
Public Archaeology with a Doukhobor Descendant Community, Toronto, 2006
– Meagan Brooks
In the summer of 2004 partnerships between the Doukhobor and Saskatchewan archaeological communities created, "The Doukhobor Pit-house Public Archaeology Project", featuring the participation of Doukhobor descendants in the excavation of two Doukhobor sites. Using qualitative data including questionnaires, daily journals and interviews, the project was evaluated to determine the impact the archaeological experience had upon the changing Doukhobor community. The results of the evaluation demonstrated the successes, failures and benefits of the project for the community. However themes indicating pathways to success are applicable not only to the Doukhobor community but also to future public and descendant archaeology projects. These themes provide a deeper understanding of how archaeology can provide Canadian communities with a voice in the creation, maintenance and celebration of their past.
The Application of Palaeoenvironmental Methodologies to the Analysis of Coastal Hunter-Gatherer Lifeways: Evidence from the Severn Estuary, Southwest, Toronto, 2006
– Alex Brown
Methods of palaeoenvironmental analysis (e.g., pollen, plant macrofossils and charcoal) play an increasingly central role in investigations of hunter-gatherer lifeways in the British Isles (10,000-4,000 cal BC). This presentation examines the results of the application of these methodologies to late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer sites (c. 6500-4000 cal BC) within the coastal zone of the Severn Estuary, southwest Britain, and their potential application to other geographical areas of study. Research in the Severn Estuary involved the excavation and investigation of stratified occupation contexts, many waterlogged or sealed by peat, in addition to analysis of off-site environmental sequences. Analytical techniques included high resolution pollen, plant macrofossil and quantified charcoal analysis. Marked charcoal horizons were identified from all the sites investigated, some suggesting distinct phases of anthropogenic activity involving the disturbance and manipulation of a range of vegetation environments from reedswamp to woodland edge. Charred seeds from occupation contexts, in cases associated with chipped stone and pollen evidence for small-scale woodland clearances, suggest that hunter-gatherers were managing seasonally available wild resources growing along the coastal woodland edge. The ubiquitous presence of charcoal in sedimentary sequences, sometimes occurring over several hundred years, is argued to reflect the deliberate management of the landscape by hunter-gatherers, either to promote the increased growth and productivity of a range of edible plants, and/or to provide improved graze for ungulate herbivores upon which humans could predate. This viewpoint is supported by ethnohistorical accounts of the role and use of fire in recent aboriginal populations, most notable the pre-Colonial Indians of the Pacific northwest coast of America (Boyd 1999a, 1999b; Turner 1999), the Atlantic coast of New England (Cronon 1983) and Australia (Flood 1983; Bickford and Gell 2005), suggesting that postglacial hunter-gatherers had a significant and sustained impact on the landscape. The application of palaeoenvironmental analyses has proven highly successful in furthering our understanding of Mesolithic lifeways in Britain, in particular, concerning patterns of seasonality, subsistence and settlement. This paper provides an opportunity to explore the applicability of these methodologies to other geographical areas where there is abundant archaeological evidence for hunter-gatherer activities (e.g., continental northwest Europe and northwest America), but where the potential of these methodologies may not yet have been explored or perhaps fully realised.
Fostering Respect and Relevance in Archaeological Research, Toronto, 2006
– Kevin Brownlee
There is increased interest in collaborative research projects between archaeologists and First Nation people in Canada. Clearly articulated research frameworks and models that achieve a balance between the interests of archaeologists and community members are difficult to find. In order to address this issue, I developed and applied a research framework on the study of bone and antler tools from the central boreal forest of Canada. A central aim of my research was to ensure that the beliefs and perspectives of First Nation people were respected from research design through to the implementation and sharing of results. The foundation of the research framework is based on Agency theory and Participatory Action Research. The success in the application of this new model demonstrates how the perspectives of First Nation people can be validated through archaeological research and can continue to foster positive partnerships with archaeologists.
Shellfish Analysis from the Dundas Island Group, Toronto, 2006
– Meghan Burchell, Aubrey Cannon, and Darren Grocke
This paper presents the methodology and preliminary results of shellfish analysis from sites on the Dundas Islands Group. Growth increment profiles of sectioned butter clam (Saxidomus giganteus) are used to interpret collection strategies, which can range from intensive harvesting of shellfish to light-casual collection. The variability in shellfish collection, and potential long-term harvesting strategies are interpreted through the comparison of growth increment profiles from different sites. Stable isotope analysis is also applied to determine potential patterns in seasonal collection strategies.
Insights from End Scrapers: A Case Study from the Anderson Site on the Lower Grand River of Southern Ontario, Toronto, 2006
– Jeff Bursey
The Anderson Site (AfGx-54) was an early Uren Substage village site, dating to late in the 12th century A.D., salvage excavated in 1991 near the Town of Cayuga in southern Ontario. Certainly the most notable aspect of the recovered assemblage is the remnants of the chipped lithic industry, the analysis of which is ongoing. In this presentation, I will be examining a specific form of end scraper recovered during the investigations referred to informally in the literature as Glen Meyer Stemmed Snubnose. To date, there have been no relatively large assemblages analysed in detail since the original type was proposed over 30 years ago. Here I will provide a brief overview of the end scrapers recovered from the Anderson site that conform to this type. Particular attention will be devoted to examples that appear to be particularly well-made so as to draw attention to the reduction sequence. In particular, I will focus on the sequence of decisions used in manufacturing this style of end scraper as well as differences in the type of flakes removed compared to the knapping style observable in biface production. Finally, an example of the product of a juvenile or inexperienced knapper will be considered in order to generate some insights into how knapping had been learned in a prehistoric context.
Temporal and Spatial Shifts in Resource Acquisition Patterns as Seen in the Fish Remains at T'ukw'aa, Barkley Sound, B.C., Toronto, 2006
– Megan Caldwell
The Nuu-Chah-Nulth site of T'ukw'aa at the mouth of Barkley Sound , British Columbia, appears to consist of three different residential areas. Were the residents of these three areas socially differentiated? A preliminary examination of fish remains will assess whether or not differential use of resources may have existed between these three areas. As well, did use of fish resources shift through time, either between these three areas or at the site as a whole? Evidence from two other sites in Barkley Sound has shown a change in resource acquisition from mainly rock fish to salmon around 500 - 600 years ago, running counter to the common date of NAC salmon intensification (3,500 to 5,000 BP). Does this shift occur at the outer harbour site of T'ukwa'a, and is it seen across all three site areas?
A Patch Work Quilt: Studying the Architectural Fabric of Medieval Period Caravanserais in Northwestern Pakistan, Toronto, 2006
– Jennifer Campbell
Somewhere between the study of monumental and household architecture lies an aspect of vernacular architecture that involves the creation of space that is neither solely imperial nor familial in its function and fabrication. Caravanserais are compounds where merchants, pilgrims, scholars and government employees could stop for brief periods of time. Caravanserais provided protection from robbers and weather, water for drinking, bathing and ritual ablution, a place to perform daily prayers, a market place, and in some instances a manufacturing centre. Thus, these vernacular structures are uniquely situated for addressing the creation and formation of public buildings and the interpretation and use of these spaces by the groups who occupied them. This paper introduces research into medieval period caravanserais found in Peshawar city, Pakistan. This research addresses the reinterpretation and reoccupation of space/place; a common occurrence in areas of the world where State organization is both temporally and stratigraphically deep.
A Land of Many Cultures: Planning for the Conservation of Archaeological Features in the City of Toronto, Toronto, 2006
– Peter Carruthers, and Ronald Williamson
In 2002, the City of Toronto initiated a comprehensive planning and management study for archaeological resources within the City. The Archaeological Master Plan has four major goals including the compilation of detailed, reliable inventories of registered and unregistered archaeological sites within the City, the preparation of a thematic overview of the City's settlement history as it relates to the potential occurrence of additional pre-and post-contact archaeological resources, the development of an archaeological site potential model, based on known site locations, past and present land uses, environmental and cultural-historical data, and assessment of the likelihood for survival of archaeological resources in various urban contexts and assessment and the provision of recommendations concerning the preparation of archaeological resource conservation and management guidelines for the City. The study began with a comprehensive review of archaeological conservation policies in major cities around the world focussing on Europe, Asia and North America. The resultant design for this study represents one of the most effective approaches to archaeological resource conservation currently employed by a major city anywhere in the world.
A Chain is not a Sequence: The Temporality of the Chaîne Opératoire, Toronto, 2006
– Michael Chazan
Over the last ten years the concept of the chaîne opératoire has been widely adopted by North American lithic analysts. In the process the chaîne opératoire has come to be viewed as largely synonymous with reduction sequence and an emphasis has been placed on the aspect of the chaîne opératoire that recognizes the dynamic nature of stone tool production. This emphasis on the dynamic or sequential aspects of the chaîne opératoire has come at the cost of neglecting the importance the chaîne opératoire affords to the concepts that underlie technical processes. This paper will focus on the ambiguous temporality of the chaîne opératoire . Recognizing the temporal complexity of the chaîne opératoire is an important step in understanding the implications of this concept to a holistic approach to lithic analysis that includes the knowledge and skill of the knapper.
Towards a Management Plan for the Debert and Belmont Archaeological Sites, Toronto, 2006
– David J. Christianson, Tim Bernard, Bob Ogilvie, and Leah Rosenmeier
The Confederacy of Mainland Mi'kmaq and the Heritage Division of the Nova Scotia Department of Tourism, Culture and Heritage are jointly working towards the development of a management plan for the Debert and Belmont archaeological sites. An interim strategic plan has been developed that reflects a set of guiding principles that recognizes the crucial significance of these archaeological sites to contemporary Mi'kmaq and the scientific values inherent in the preservation of these resources. The strategic plan outlines three strategic goals that will promote preservation of the sites while encouraging appropriate excavation and study. The research component of the work will define the regional area of interest and the levels of archaeological assessment in areas of related potential.
Old Songhees Reserve (DcRu-25): A Newly Discovered Northwest Coast Wetsite, Toronto, 2006
– Terence Clark, Genevieve Hill, and Kristina Bowie
Recent recovery of organic material from the Old Songhees Reserve (DcRu-25) in Victoria, British Columbia has shed light on a dynamic period of human occupation. Dating to the European contact period, an interesting assemblage of prehistoric, ethnographic and historic items was unearthed. Notably this assemblage includes basketry, wooden fish hooks, a bentwood box, and one of the largest collections of leather shoes recovered from a North American wetsite. Analysis of the ethnographic artifacts depicts a rich story of the cosmopolitan life near Fort Victoria in the late 19th century. Less than 20 archaeological wetsites have been excavated from the entire Northwest Coast and this is the only one from the European contact period.
In the Tangled Garden: Archaeology, Art History, and the Group of Seven, Toronto, 2006
– Martin Cooper
An archaeological investigation was commissioned by the City of Vaughan as part of the historic landscape design for the J.E.H. MacDonald property in Thornhill, Ontario. The goal of the investigation was to identify through archaeology the structure in the background of MacDonald's most celebrated painting and thus determine the location of the garden. This award winning project represented the first archaeological investigation related to Canada's Group of Seven and is an example of the contribution archaeology can make to art history.
Hierarchy and Communalism: Tensions of Domestic Space in Northwest Coast Household Archaeology, Toronto, 2006
– Gary Coupland
Ranks societies, such as those of the Northwest Coast, grapple with an inherent tension in social structure grapple with an inherent tension between hierarchy and communalism. This paper examines the ways in which domestic space, in particular vernacular architecture, was used on the Northwest Coast to resolve this tension. Northwest Coast houses reinforced social principles of rank by assigning family spaces according to title within dwellings, while simultaneously supporting household incorporation through the use of central communal spaces.
From the Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age: The Ceramic Sequence of Tell Rakan, Jordan, Toronto, 2006
– Emily M. Court, and Dana Campbell
Excavations at Tell Rakan (WZ120) in Wadi Ziqlab, Jordan have revealed a stratified sequence of Pre-Pottery Neolithic B, Late Neolithic, Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age remains. This level of occupational continuity is rare in the Levant and Tell Rakan offers an important opportunity to study the ceramic development at a single site. Evidence suggests that Tell Rakan was occupied for the duration of the Chalcolithic, offering an excellent opportunity to identify the transition into and out of the period. Our analysis of the ceramic sequence addresses developments from the Neolithic, through these transitions, into the Early Bronze Age. In addition, we address how the sequence relates to finds from other sites in the region. The significance of the pottery sequence and occupational continuity of Tell Rakan is discussed at both the local and regional level.
From Pattern to Performance: The Social Logic of Prehistoric Iroquoian Domestic Space, Toronto, 2006
– John Creese
The prehistoric Iroquoian longhouse is explored from the perspective of sociological performance. It is argued that the everyday practices of domestic life constituted an ongoing discourse in which tensions between social atoms and wholes were negotiated. The habitual behaviours that occurred within the longhouse exhibit an enduring concern for balance and symmetry between spaces identified with autonomous but allied social units. Moreover, the special emphasis on these principals, exemplified by post-cluster features associated with the house medial line, suggests that this liminal space was the focus of heightened ritualization in the 14th and 15th centuries, perhaps in response to scalar stress.
Neoglacial Sea-Ice Expansion Pushed Fur Seals South and Inuit North: Evidence from Archaeozoological Analysis of a Site in the Eastern Aleutians, Toronto, 2006
– Susan J. Crockford, and Gay S. Frederick
The Neoglacial was a period of cold climate that lasted from ca. 4700 to 2500 BP. We present evidence that the Neoglacial substantially altered the distribution of Bering Sea marine mammals, using faunal remains recovered from the Amaknak Bridge site on Unalaska Island (occupied ca. 3,500 - 2,500 RCYBP, uncorrected). Archaeozoological analysis indicates that spring pack ice reached a more southerly position during the Neoglacial than it does today and persisted much longer. We infer from this evidence that sea-ice must also have engulfed the Pribilof Islands until early summer and blocked the Bering Strait virtually year round, preventing fur seals from using the Pribilofs as a breeding rookery and whales from making summer migrations into the arctic, as they do today. We suggest Neoglacial sea-ice expansion in the Bering Sea pushed fur seals south along the Northwest Coast and explains the timing of Inuit arrival into the Western Arctic.
Cautionary Tales to Cultural Translations, Toronto, 2006
– Jerimy J. Cunningham
In this paper, I suggest that many of the challenges faced by emerging indigenous archaeologies parallel those encountered by ethnoarchaeology. Archaeology once eagerly anticipated the new perspectives that it assumed ethnoarchaeology would bring to archaeological interpretation. However, as ethnographic knowledge increasingly challenged many of the core tropes of archaeology's conceptual models, some archaeologists began to critique ethnoarchaeology for what it saw as the production of cautionary tales and trivial knowledge. I argue that at the core of this dispute is a fundamental misunderstanding about the role of "source-side" research in archaeological interpretation and suggest ways that both ethnoarchaeological and indigenous perspectives can contribute to a robust archaeological enterprise.
Across from Ellesmere: Results of Archaeological Survey in Inglefield Land, Greenland, Toronto, 2006
– John A. Darwent, Genevieve LeMoine, Christyann M. DARWENT, and Hans Lange
The Inglefield Land Archaeology Project is a collaborative multi-year project with the primary goal of studying culture contact among the Inughuit, Inuit, and Euro-American explorers in northwestern Greenland in order to investigate issues concerning loss and regain of technology, changes in land use, and environmental impacts. As a start to this endeavour, we began a program of helicopter and pedestrian survey during the summers of 2004 and 2005 in order to identify sites for further investigation. Although Inglefield Land is renown for sites such as Ruin Island and Inuarfissuaq (Holtved 1944), overall the archaeological record of the area was poorly known. Here we present the results of the 2004 and 2005 survey during which we examined most of the coastline of the area by helicopter and identified 1375 cultural features in four localities during pedestrian survey.