Historical Property Analysis for One St. Thomas Street, Toronto, Peterborough, 2008
– Amy Fox
My research examines this history and occupation of One St. Thomas Street, Toronto, Ontario through the application of 'property archaeology'. In 1844 five wooded houses were built which were then demolished to make way for a multi-million dollar condominium. With the aid of the Toronto Archives, City Directory, City Assessment Rolls, the Archives at Victoria College, and records from Goad's Fire Insurance maps I detailed the historical ownership, land use and value, and even a failed business venture attempted with the property. Patterns visible in the city's record show this property sample acted as a microcosm for demographics changes and are still occurring in this downtown neighbourhood at the intersection of Bay and Bloor streets.
Ancestral Engineering: Bringing an Engineering Perspective to Archaeological Investigation, Peterborough, 2008
– David W. Fritz, David S. Strong, and Tim J. Bryant
We have long felt those whom modern society has named "Engineers" have played a significant role in the evolution of cultures and civilizations. Working with manual tools and the materials that nature provided, archaeological evidence has shown that practical, innovative, and esthetically beautiful creations were produced by our engineering ancestors. As with most effective research, understanding the past can lead to optimizing the future, and we propose that it is beneficial to study engineering and design in this context. In this paper we will discuss what we have termed "Ancestral Engineering", and describe the rationale behind the initiative. Two main themes have emerged; engineers helping archaeologists to integrate engineering expertise into their investigations, and archaeologists helping engineers to extract engineering design practice and methodology from other cultures. We propose and will begin to develop a concept of some archaeological materials as "engineered products" as opposed to "artifacts", within this framework. Several initial project ideas are discussed and a suite of Research Questions is proposed. We believe this is an emerging field, with significant opportunity to develop collaborative relationships with interested engineers, archaeologists and anthropologists to pursue discussions and potential research in this field.
A Typology for Cypriot White Painted Ceramics: Chronology vs Regionalism, Peterborough, 2008
– Laura Gagne
White Painted Wares, while not found in great numbers in any excavation, are the hallmark of the Middle Bronze Age on Cyprus. This makes them a critical marker for chronology. Paul Åström created the typology used today as his PhD thesis which was published in 1957. Åström examined material that came mainly from tomb groups, created a seriation of types based on both shape and decoration. This typology is used today to assign new finds to established types, but recently there have been some questions raised about the accuracy of Åström's work and its usefulness with newly excavated material, especially from settlement sites. The results of a preliminary petrographic analysis of the fabric of sherds from two sites on Cyprus raises the possibility that some of the types listed by Åström may be due to regional differences rather than chronological ones.
Manufacturing and Seasoning: Possibilities for Research Relating To Ontario Precontact Pottery Function, Peterborough, 2008
– Brandy E. George
The functionality of Ontario precontact pottery is an area in which experimentation, research and published material is lacking. Most often, aspects related to decoration, time period and cultural affiliation are sought after while potential pottery usage is generally ignored. In the manufacturing and seasoning of a series of ceramic vessels, a multi-faceted approach is used in which experimental methods are employed, archaeological and ethnographic examples are consulted, and all are combined to make assumptions in relation to possible pottery function for the Ontario archaeological record. Ultimately the aim of this paper is to look at precontact ceramics as functional tools in an effort to open up more avenues for research, and to encourage the use of experimental archaeology to test theories of artifact function in general.
Floating Stone: Watercraft and Lithic Procurement in Maine and the Maritimes, Peterborough, 2008
– Drew Gilbert
The Quoddy Region, in southwestern NB, was a nexus of toolstone trade and transport between Maine and the Maritimes. Watercraft played an integral role in the procurement and trade of both local and exotic toolstones from their original source(s) to where these artifacts were later deposited and recovered from the archaeological record. This paper will focus on the varied lithic materials recovered from the Deer Island Point site (BfDr5). The discussion will illustrate how watercraft enabled the relatively rapid transport of large amounts of lithic materials with less overall effort than land-based travel.
Fabric of Time: the Augustine Mound textiles, Peterborough, 2008
– Elizabeth N. Gorman, and Dr. Susan E. Blair
Textile technologies in the Northeast are scantly evidenced in the archaeological record, due to the acidic soils in the region. Contrary to this, however, numerous partially mineralized textile artifacts were excavated from the Augustine Mound, a prehistoric Mi'kmaq cemetery located on the Metepenagiag (Red Bank) reserve in New Brunswick, Canada. Such preservation was afforded due to the inclusion of several thousand copper beads. Among these artifacts are textiles that represent the earliest known forms of textile arts for the region. These artifacts vary in form and structure, and include twined, and plaited fabric, basketry, and matting, as well as wrapped textiles, braids, and cordage on which shell and copper beads were strung. Many of these technologies are still practiced by the Mi'kmaq people, such as in the manufacture of woodsplint basketry, and rush matting. This paper will explore linkages of continuity and change between these past and present textile technologies.
The Use of Caves in Taino Religion, Peterborough, 2008
– Jenna Green
The use of caves as ritual and sacred landscapes has been well-explored in New World archaeology, especially in regards to Mesoamerican civilizations. Recent evidence has shed light on the importance of caves in the Caribbean, specifically the Classic Taino Chiefdoms of Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. This poster will show that Taino cave use reflects a highly developed and relatively wide-spread religion with direct implications for Taino social structure. Taino cave art demonstrates the alternative use of caves as a ritual area and the possible location of the axis mundi – the connecting element to the various realms of the cosmos. The importance of Taino religion has been documented with ethnohistoric sources, but as the indigenous population was completely erased with the arrival of Columbus, material remains are all we have to create a picture of the importance of religion to a developing Chiefdom-type society.
A new approach for isolating organic residues in prehistoric pottery, and implications for the study of agricultural and herding practices originating, Peterborough, 2008
– Michael W. Gregg
This paper presents molecular and isotopic evidence of subsistence practices from 8 early agricultural villages and herding encampments in the Middle East. Absorbed organic residues were extracted from archaeological pottery fragments through use of a microwave-assisted liquid chromatography protocol initially developed for the isolation and concentration of free fatty acids in marine sediments. Isotopic analyses of C 16:0 and C 18:0 fatty acids surviving in these fragments has revealed ∂13C ratios consistent with those of modern fats of wild boar and domesticated sheep and goats pastured in the southern Levant and central Anatolia.
Handaxe Manufacture Sequences from Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa, Peterborough, 2008
– Dyan Laskin Grossman
Stone tools are typically represented by a photograph or drawing and measurements of length, width and thickness. However, lithic artifacts are also a record of knapping sequences, representing the specific mental processes that result in the object's final form. Refitting is one way of examining past decisions, but in cases where refitting is not possible, flake scars can provide evidence of past actions. Using a collection of handaxes from Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa, this paper examines how flake scars can be used to describe a handaxe in terms of the series of actions that created it, constructing schematic representations that link process and final shape, quantifying the human action in tool production and providing information about past mental processes.
Potsherds of the Ontario Iroquois Tradition at Lake Abitibi, Northwestern Quebec, Peterborough, 2008
– François Guindon
Iroquoian pottery exhibits an unusually high frequency at Lake Abitibi sites compared to other sites of the Canadian Shield. For this reason, it has attracted the attention of archaeologists since research began in the Abitibi area in the 1970s. A corpus of 143 vessel equivalents, all attributable to the Ontario Iroquois Tradition, and coming from six sites and one private collection were analysed in the course of my master's thesis research. The main results of this work as well as what it implies on the relations through time between the Ontario Iroquoian and the Lake Abitibi Algonquian people are presented.
The Point of Popularity: A Summary of Human Activity at the Princess Point Promontory, Cootes Paradise, Hamilton, Peterborough, 2008
– Helen R. Haines, James Sherratt, David G. Smith, and David Galbraith
Located on the south shore of Cootes Paradise the Princess Point promontory is ideally situated to attract human activity. Starting in the Middle Woodland period, the promontory may have served a variety of purposes. Archaeological investigations have been conducted intermittently in various locations around the promontory since the late 1960's revealing some interesting questions about the history of its use. Additionally, the Royal Botanical Gardens has conducted significant environmental research in Cootes Paradise that impacts directly on our understanding of the human activity in this area. This presentation summarizes both of these research areas with the aim of creating a framework of human activity at the site into which future, more focused studies, may be situated.
Cost/Benefit Analysis and Deep Test Protocol based on the Minnesota Deep Test Protocol Project, Peterborough, 2008
– Michael J. Hambacher, William G. Monaghan, Michael Kolb, Daniel R. Hayes, and Kathryn Egan-Bruhy
A recent study, funded by the Minnesota Department of Transportation, compared the results and costs of various methods for discovering and evaluating buried archaeological sites. These methods included remote sensing (magnetometry, resistivity, and GPR), small-diameter, solid-earth coring (GeoProbe), and backhoe trenching. This presentation compares the costs and benefits of the methods and discusses the protocol we propose for buried sites discovery and evaluation. Analysis of the data indicates that the implementation of a multi-disciplinary approach to the exploration for and evaluation of buried archaeological sites meets the goals of the investigative process in a cost effective fashion. Implementation of this protocol since its development continues to demonstrate its effectiveness.
Rocking The Continuum: A Geochemical Analysis Of Paleo-Eskimo Lithic Raw Material Selection Strategies On Southern Baffin Island, Peterborough, 2008
– Anne Hamilton, Brooke S. Milne, and Mostafa Fayek
Differential use of lithic raw materials is thought to represent one of the cultural changes distinguishing the early and late Palaeo-Eskimo periods in the Canadian Arctic. The interior of southern Baffin Island represents an ideal location to test this premise given the abundance of chert there. Moreover, Milne has identified several sites that indicate the Palaeo-Eskimos consistently traveled to the area over a 2400-year period to procure it. However, this chert is highly variable in colour and cannot be reliably sourced using observational methods alone. In this paper, we present a new technique that draws on petrographic, trace element, and isotopic analyses to accurately source chert from the island's interior. Our goal is to isolate inter- and intra-source variability through the identification of distinct geochemical fingerprints. This will allow us to determine how many sources exist in the interior, and to assess how they were being exploited by the Palaeo-Eskimos throughout the cultural continuum.
GIS Hydrological Modeling in Archaeology: An Example from the Origins of Irrigation in Southwest Arabia (Yemen), Peterborough, 2008
– Michael Harrower
From small bands of foragers, pastoralists, and village agriculturists, to states and civilizations, water accessibility and management played an important role in sustenance throughout the ancient world. Recent advancements in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and related remote sensing technologies offer powerful new means of analyzing water flow that are well-suited to help clarify design and operational requirements of different irrigation and water management systems. Studies of irrigation in Yemen have traditionally focused on massive flash floodwater systems that sustained ancient state capitals, yet far less is known about the incipient precursors of large-scale systems. This paper describes satellite imagery Digital Elevation Model (DEM) extraction and GIS hydrological modeling procedures conducted for the Wadi Sana watershed of Hadramawt Governate, Yemen, that help illustrate one of the local contexts in which irrigation originated.
Making Pots for Different Uses? A Consideration of Technological Variation in a Middle Woodland Assemblage from Georgian Bay, Ontario, Peterborough, 2008
– Alicia L. Hawkins
The Spiegel site, also known as Killarney Bay I, is a Middle Woodland habitation and burial area located on the northern shore of Georgian Bay at Killarney. A team from the University of Michigan directed by E. Greenman excavated the burial area between 1939 and 1953, while faculty and students from Laurentian University conducted excavations in the habitation area starting during the 1980s and ending in 2002. In this paper I will compare the technological characteristics of pottery from the habitation area with a description of the pottery from the burial area made by D. Brose. According to Brose, pottery from the burial area falls into one of three general groups: thick-walled early Middle Woodland, thin-walled late Middle Woodland, and small amounts of Late Woodland pottery. In my characterization of the pottery from the habitation area, I use thin-sections to investigate temper type and density, and visual examination to evaluate how pots were built and whether they bear carbon encrustation. For comparative purposes, I also document the hardness of pots. Examination of the decoration from the habitation area shows that it is similar to other Middle Woodland ceramic material in being characterized by a high degree of variability, and thick-walled pottery appears relatively uncommon. Does the pottery from the two areas represent different chaînes opératoires focussed on producing pottery to be used in different social contexts? Does chronological variation explain well the differences within the assemblage from the habitation area?
Reflections on the Ancient Maya: Iron Ore Mosaic Mirrors, Part 1 (Manufacture, Dating, and Contexts), Peterborough, 2008
– Paul F. Healy, and Marc G. Blainey
The ancient Maya of Central America created, and employed, composite lithic artifacts termed mirrors by archaeologists. These objects, typically flat, shiny, iron ore plaques, fitted in a mosaic pattern to a backing of stone, ceramic, or wood, are assessed for their spatial, temporal, and functional contexts. Over 500 archaeological specimens from 41 sites in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras are examined.
There's a new laser in town: Femtosecond laser ablation as a tool for identifying human mobility in the archaeological record, Peterborough, 2008
– Barbara R. Hewitt, Brian J. Fryer, Christine D. White, and Fred J. Longstaffe
Laser ablation as a research tool is quickly becoming common in the archaeological literature. Its minimally destructive properties make it a highly desirable method for use on rare and valuable objects and artifacts. To date however, the use of high intensity Femtosecond lasers has been restricted primarily to the fields of engineering, medicine, geology and marine biology. This paper presents the preliminary results of a recent study designed to test the use of Fs-LA-MC-ICP-MS on bone and enamel samples as a means of investigating questions surrounding human mobility in ancient Peru.
Proposals, Permits and Partnerships: The Archaeological Landscape of Aulavik National Park, Peterborough, 2008
– Lisa HODGETTS
Aulavik National Park, located on north-central Banks Island, N.W.T., contains a number of important archaeological sites and has the potential to make a major contribution to our understanding of the human occupation of the Western Canadian Arctic. This paper will focus on two elements of the archaeological landscape of the Park: the dynamics of past peoples as a component of the cultural landscape, and the present-day political landscape in which an academic (non-Parks Canada) archaeologist must operate. It will outline the theoretical framework for new archaeological fieldwork in Aulavik that is scheduled to commence this summer. It will also document the ongoing process of relationship building with Parks Canada and local Inuvialuit groups; a process not without its challenges, but one that holds great promise and will contribute significantly to project outcomes.
Applications of Magnetometer Survey to the Archaeology of Arctic Hunter-Gatherers, Peterborough, 2008
– Lisa HODGETTS, Pete Dawson, and Edward Eastaugh
The potential of geophysical prospection techniques has long been recognized in archaeology, though they are more routinely used as part of mainstream archaeological practice in Europe than in North America. These techniques are better at identifying large archaeological features (e.g. ditches, building foundations etc.), and their limited use in North America may relate to the predominance of more ephemeral hunter-gatherer sites in the region's archaeological record. However, advances in both survey instruments and computer technology now allow the identification of less substantial features. Recent fluxgate gradiometer surveys of Arctic-adapted hunter-gatherer sites have produced promising results, and suggest that the technique may provide a useful complement to excavation in this context. Examples from Newfoundland and the southern Keewatin District of Nunavut illustrate both the potential of the technique and the need for further research to help interpret gradiometer results from such applications.
Sadlermiut Children and Childhood, Peterborough, 2008
– Emily Holland
The paper to be presented concerns the Sadlermiut children from Southampton Island, Nunavut. In order to better understand the lives of these children, a three-fold methodology integrating archaeological and ethnographic evidence of children and childhood with an osteological analysis of growth and development was utilized. Osteological analyses revealed a high infant mortality rate and a growth pattern similar to that of the Eskimo and Aleut from Alaska, yet less than that of modern children of European descent, and archaeological populations from the U.S. These analyses paired with ethnographic information support the occurrence of puberty between 12 and 15 years of age.
The Postclassic Pots and People of Lamanai, Belize, Peterborough, 2008
– Linda Howie, Christine D. White, and Fred Longstaffe
Lamanai is a large Maya ceremonial centre located in northern Belize, one of a few regions that did not experience the political disintegration and depopulation typical of 9th-11th century Classic period collapse. The ability of this community to survive during the Postclassic period, and up until and beyond the arrival of the Spanish in the area in the 16th century, appears to have been related, at least in part, to its favourable subsistence and commercial location. In this paper we explore the relationship between biological and material markers of identity and status differences as evidenced in mortuary contexts. The focus is on the potential contribution of detailed integrated scientific studies of ceramics and their associated skeletal remains in the reconstruction of Lamanai's relationships with other surviving city centres, and the consequent status accrued to the site.
Negotiations of Change: The Material Record of Colonial Maya Congregaciones, Peterborough, 2008
– Sarah E. Jackson
Early Colonial Maya congregaciones, or forced resettlements, provide an important material context for examining the initial impacts and negotiations of the Spanish Colonial project, and for complicating our understanding of Maya responses to colonialism and, more broadly, change. This talk examines this understudied context in order to offer preliminary observations and identify emerging questions regarding the ways in which changes were experienced and recorded in (as well as manipulated through) materials and tools of daily life. In particular, attention is paid to different categories of objects in order to explore differences in patterns of shifts or continuities between classes of material, such as utilitarian ceramics versus more marked materials, like those belonging to the ritual sphere. Ethnohistoric documentation from the Archivo General de Centroamerica is considered as a complementary data source, with the potential for offering alternative perspectives on the official, or public, negotiation of change.
Rethinking the Ontario Iroquois Tradition, Peterborough, 2008
– Susan M. Jamieson
Ethnicity is an integral attribution in James V. Wright's taxonomic construct of the culture history of southern Ontario, the `Ontario Iroquois Tradition'. On the basis of presumed northern Iroquoian traits identified using the direct historical approach and ceramic seriation, Wright (1966) designated two independent cultural developments – Glen Meyer and Pickering – as representative of the tradition's initial stage. Subsequently, he extended Iroquoian ethnicity to the earlier Princess Point culture (Wright 1984:287). Following revised ethnic designation, he eventually removed both Princess Point and Glen Meyer from the `Ontario Iroquois Tradition' (Wright 2004:1309-1310). Wright's ethnic attributions continue to have considerable currency within Ontario archaeology even though recent critical examination shows that the taxonomy and its modifications are subjectively based and that the observed distributions of traits used to identify the Ontario Iroquois are less bounded than Wright imagined. Although the 'Ontario Iroquois Tradition' has an important contributory history to Ontario archaeology as a taxonomic device, it cannot be supported either theoretically or empirically.
Where My Grandfather Lived: Archaeology and Community in Croque, Newfoundland, Peterborough, 2008
– Jennifer Jones
Within Newfoundland's Petit Nord region, the archaeological site Genille (EgAw-07), locally known as Kearney's Cove, was settled in the 19th century by Patrick Kearney, an Irish Catholic man working as a gardien. Gardiens were essentially caretakers for French fishermen; the fishermen had seasonal fishing rights on the site but were banned from settling the land as part of a treaty established between the British and French. Having a gardien settled at the site ensured the protection of French supplies and resource interests during their absence over the winter. Many of Patrick Kearney's descendents currently inhabit the nearby town of Croque, and their narratives and experiences living at Genille add valuable insight into past aspects of daily life in northern Newfoundland. This paper focuses on the archaeological explorations conducted at Genille this summer, as well as experiences and related interactions with the local community. Research at Genille addresses the shared use of the landscape by the French and Irish and the settlers' quality of life. The archaeological evidence is complemented by the addition of archival evidence and a discussion of local oral histories regarding the settlement of Genille.
Identifying the Contexts of Deeply Buried Great Lakes Coastal Sites: Examples from the Sheguiandah and Cummins Sites, Peterborough, 2008
– Patrick J. Julig, and William C. Mahaney
Burial of late Pleistocene/Early Holocene archaeological facies on the Great Lakes are reported and described for the Cummins site on Lake Superior and the Sheguiandah site on Lake Huron (Manitoulin Island). Stratigraphies and contexts of formation are complex at both of these Palaeo-Indian sites, with mixed deposits containing both water-worn and unworn artifacts. Age of deposits and depositional processes have been extensively studied. The coarse and/or poorly sorted nature of archaeological/geological mixed facies is atypical for beach deposits associated with post-glacial lakes, but they are too young to be of glacial origin. This paper will report on micromorphology of sediments belonging to the lower deposits at Sheguiandah, which indicated varve-like structures. The dynamic nature of the Late Pleistocene Great Lakes coasts, subject to major (catastrophic?) level fluctuations, can lead to abrupt changes in sedimentation style, posing special challenges in interpreting site formation processes.