Feature #1 at the Crowfield Palaeoindian Site, Ontario, Toronto, 2006
– Brian D. Deller, Chris J. Ellis, and James R. Keron
The Crowfield site near London, Ontario, excavated in the 1980s, is a small typical Palaeoindian campsite except for the presence of a plough-truncated pit feature associated with thousands of pieces of at least 182 functional, but purposefully burned and destroyed, stone artifacts. This paper reports on the spatial distribution of artifact pieces within the feature. Plotting of individual tool classes reveals that they are not randomly distributed. These data indicate that some tool classes we recognize match the conceptions of the Palaeoindian peoples themselves, show the material was sorted and carefully placed in the feature, supports the idea the items were burned where found, suggests that it is more likely the items represent an individual's tool kit rather than contributions from several individuals, and for the first time provides direct evidence that Palaeoindians transported their tool kits around sorted into types used for different purposes.
Sizing up the Situation: Tools for the Protection of Archaeological Resources in Ontario, Toronto, 2006
– Dena Doroszenko, and Sean Fraser
The mission of the Ontario Heritage Trust is to identify, preserve, protect and promote Ontario's cultural and natural heritage for the benefit of present and future generations. Last year's passing of the Ontario Heritage Act strengthened regulations to protect Ontario's unique heritage sites, including its mandate to protect natural heritage. Identifying and protecting places in our communities that have cultural heritage value is an important part of planning for the future, and of helping to guide change while keeping the buildings, structures, archaeological sites and landscapes that give each of our communities its unique identity. This paper will address the available tools for the protection of archaeological resources in the Province of Ontario and provide substantive examples
The Picts: Issues in Identifying an Historical Ethnicity, Toronto, 2006
– Jordan T. Downey
Many problems arise when one attempts to define an ethnicity, particularly a past ethnicity with few living descendants. This is the case with the Picts, a people of Celtic descent that lived in Northern England into the European Middle Ages. One of the main problems with identifying the Picts is that they were one of at least five different nations, each with a unique language, which existed contemporaneously in the British Isles. This paper uses a multivariate approach to deal with the issue of identifying the Picts in the historical an archaeological record. In addition to archaeological and historical methods of identification, I examine the linguistic and ethnographic evidence for the existence of the Pictish nation. I conclude that, despite some problems, it is possible to identify the remains of an unique Pictish nation through these methods.
Towards a Social Archaeology of the Southern Northwest Coast, Toronto, 2006
– Paul Ewonus
The Pacific Northwest Coast is an example of dominant evolutionary themes structuring the analysis of archaeological data sets that can almost exclusively be considered interrupted. This follows from the difficulty accumulating archaeological knowledge in a sparsely populated and environmentally diverse region of the world. The information that has been gathered from archaeological sites over this mountainous, rugged coastline is constricted both temporally and spatially. The nature of archaeological data on the Northwest Coast thus lends itself well to evolutionary debates while at the same time leaving historical narratives little in the way of a grounding. This situation is beginning to change, however, in several regions of the Northwest Coast. In the Gulf of Georgia a foundation of archaeological research results now exists that is detailed enough to begin to build an historical interpretation of social life. Employing existing archaeological data a detailed example explores the meanings of a new framework for interpretation.
Contact Archaeology in Southern Ontario... and Other Oxymorons, Toronto, 2006
– Neal Ferris
Interpreting the early contact archaeology in southern Ontario usually begins with the assumption that contact with Europeans was an entirely unique experience to Aboriginal people, the impact of which exacerbated by a "profound localism" assumed previously during the Late Woodland. Central to these contact era interpretations of Aboriginal archaeology has been the assumed dominance of European interests and motivations on events and Aboriginal behaviours. Yet these are assumptions that emerge from a distinct conceptual filter: one that sees archaeology interpreted through history. A revised conceptual filter that sees history interpreted through archaeology - archaeology being an oppositional dataset to written records rather than an assumed compliment to them - leads to a very different understanding of the archaeological record. This shift in emphasis and reorientation leave the concept of "contact" to be an oxymoron, and demonstrates archaeological patterns and Aboriginal behaviours to be remarkably consistent with the patterns and behaviours seen archaeologically in previous - and subsequent - centuries.
Ontario Cherts Revisited, Toronto, 2006
– William Fox, Patrick Julig, and Dan Long
An overview of current knowledge concerning Northern and Southern Ontario chert sources is presented, focussing on characterisation/identification and knapping quality. An attempt is made to clarify some of the chert type terminology established by Fox, some 30 years ago, which continues in use in the literature.
New Dates on the Nelson River Site: Implications for the Thule Migration, Toronto, 2006
– Max T. Friesen, and Charles D. Arnold
The Thule Inuit migration eastward from Alaska is one of the great events in the Arctic past, yet many aspects of this process, including its timing, remain unclear. In this paper, we present new dates for the earliest known Thule sites in the Amundsen Gulf / Beaufort Sea region: Nelson River and Washout. This region acted as a "bottleneck" through which Thule migrants would have to pass, and therefore accurate dates for these two early sites have important implications for our understanding of the timing, rate, and nature of the Inuit peopling of the Eastern Arctic.
Haudenosaunee (Six Nations) and Archaeological Perspectives on Site Preservation in Southern Ontario, Toronto, 2006
– Paul General, and Gary Warrick
Land development in southern Ontario causes the excavation of over 100 Indigenous sites per year. It is rare that sites are preserved when threatened by development, despite the "conservation ethic" that demands that archaeologists place site preservation before excavation. Site significance criteria guide archaeologists in making decisions on which sites will be "saved" through excavation. Indigenous peoples in Ontario have different site significance criteria and perspectives on site preservation. The Haudenosaunee (Six Nations) believe that archaeological excavation of ancestral sites should be a last resort, especially for any sites with the possibility for burials. If it is not possible to protect and preserve ancestral sites, the Haudenosaunee would like to be consulted because their site significance criteria give precedence to sites that are not always the largest, oldest, or densest. Consultation with the Haudenosaunee and other Indigenous communities in southern Ontario needs to become part of standard archaeological practice.
Native North Americans and Archaeology: Struggling for Middle Ground, Toronto, 2006
– Brandy E. George
The relationship between archaeologists and First Nations groups in Canada is an increasing concern and an important issue is whether this relationship can be called a "partnership" in which both benefit. This is a topic discussed in detail by both archaeologists and First Nations, but not from the perspective that I wish to address it. Being a Native North American archaeologist gives me a unique perspective. In the past two years I have worked with several First Nations groups in various archaeological contexts and would like to share aspects of these projects, including what I learned from these experiences. Furthermore, I have an interest in what archaeological encounters other First Nations people have had, and will include a preliminary look at these experiences.
The Archaeological Exploration of Deer Island, N.B.: History and Recent Research, Toronto, 2006
– Drew Gilbert, and David W. Black
The Quoddy Region has the longest history of archaeological exploration of any part of New Brunswick. However, the prehistory of Deer Island, the largest island in the region, has been investigated only sporadically. This is surprising given the extensive collections of prehistoric artifacts held by avocational archaeologists on Deer Island. The presentation will summarize the history of archaeological investigations on Deer Island and report on a current research project being conducted there. Archaeological investigations at the Deer Island Point site (BfDr-5) were conducted in cooperation with a local avocational archaeologist. This multi-component coastal archaeological site which includes intertidal and terrestrial deposits has yielded artifacts spanning the past 4000 years. In addition to furthering archaeological knowledge of the Quoddy Region, the purpose has been to foster cooperative working relationships among professional and avocational archaeologists, landowners and the public.
Distinguishing Carboniferous- from Mesozoic-Associated Chert Toolstones in the Canadian Maritimes, Toronto, 2006
– Drew Gilbert, Michael J. Gallant, and David W. Black
Until about two decades ago, brightly coloured, variegated chert toolstones observed in the Maritimes prehistoric archaeological record were generally assumed to have been acquired by Native people from sources associated with the Jurassic-Triassic (Mesozoic) Scots Bay Formation sediments and North Mountain Formation basalts, exposed on the Nova Scotia side of the Bay of Fundy. More recently, it has become clear that prehistoric Native people acquired some brightly coloured, variegated chert toolstones from sources associated with the Early Carboniferous Mabou Group sediments, exposed around the edges of the New Brunswick Lowlands. Raw materials and finished artifacts of both of these chert types circulated in prehistoric lithic procurement and exchange systems during the Late Maritime Woodland period (ca. 1500 to ca. 500 B.P.). Frequently, artifacts made from both chert types are found in the same archaeological assemblages. Here, we present five criteria-patterns of (1) translucency and (2) variegation, presence of (3) carnelian and (4) strain fractures, and (5) type and scale of infilling silica fabric -for probabilistically distinguishing Carboniferous-associated from Mesozoic-associated chert toolstones using low-cost, low-technology, hand-specimen and microscopic examinations
Traditional Cultural Places and Aboriginal Landscapes: Protective Measures at the Federal Level in Canada, Toronto, 2006
– Matt Glaude
The protection of cultural resources is essential for any society, as they serve as vessels of the shared human experience of thousands of generations. This paper seeks to identify the existing legal measures in Canada that are applicable to the protection of Traditional Cultural Places, in order to better understand their strengths and weaknesses. This review will consider the effectiveness of current Canadian Federal legislation aimed at mitigating environmental and cultural impacts stemming from development projects. While the Canadian practice of Cultural Resource Management has sought to protect current and historical objects and places regardless of cultural affiliations, efforts to protect Traditional Cultural Places would benefit from both a stricter adherence to the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act and additional provisions to the Historic Places Initiative.
Flat but not Empty: Houselot Data Collection in the Maya Region, Toronto, 2006
– Sean A. Goldsmith
Archaeological remains of ancient complex societies have traditionally been defined on the basis of visible architectural features, and those of the Maya region are no exception. Even the burgeoning field of household archaeology, considered in the Maya area to be a counterpoint to the excavation of large elite or civic structures, is usually contextualized by reference to the excavation of visibly mounded remains. An expanded spatial methodology - termed as the 'houselot approach' - is employed in this paper to broaden the subsurface data collection capacity of household archaeology. Such an expanded scope is intended to allow more meaningful comparisons between spatially patterned archaeological material and ancient domestic behaviour.
Community Building and Archaeology: An Experience in Western Quebec, Toronto, 2006
– Shawn Graham
This paper presents a case study about a project to establish a public-archaeology programme in Pontiac High School in Western Quebec. In partnership with the schoolboard, the school, the local community development office, the Provincial Government and the municipality of the Village of Shawville, the 'Pontiac High Archaeology Corps' was established to help develop a new 'heritage park' on the grounds of a 19th century brickyard. The students' role was to help conduct the evaluation excavations to determine the extent and nature of any remains, for much of the brickyard had been destroyed through nearly a century of farming. In this paper we present the 'Pontiac High Archaeology Corps' and their on-going activities (which we help supervise) as a model for integrating archaeology into the community, and as a driver for social growth in small rural communities.
The Lenape Meadow Excavations in Basking Ridge, N.J., Toronto, 2006
– Michelle de Gruchy
In 1995 excavation began at the Lenape Meadow site in Basking Ridge, NJ; conducted as an archaeological field school open to the general public through the Somerset County Parks Commission and directed by Dr. Alan Cooper. This site consists of a historical component, the cabin of Lord Stirling (a resident of the area in the 18th century), and a prehistoric component. Excavation thus far has focussed on the latter, which dates primarily to the Late Archaic/Early Woodland periods. This presentation will describe the prehistoric findings from this ongoing project of an intact site on the edge of the Great Swamp.
Prehistory of Greenland, Toronto, 2006
– Hans Christian Gullov
Presentation of Greenland's prehistory from 2500 BC to 1900 AD based on the first complete publication in Danish from 2004, second printing 2005 and in Greenlandic 2006.
Current Palaeoethnobotanical Research in the Maritimes: New Information from the Clam Cove Site, Nova Scotia, Toronto, 2006
– Sarah Halwas
Recent palaeoethnobotanical research carried out at the Clam Cove site in the Minas Basin region of Nova Scotia has added new information to the study of Late Woodland hunter-gatherer groups in this area. Although this small midden site is considered to be in a marginal area, the large clam bed located near the site, and the modest compliment of plant and animal species made this location suitable as a temporary camp during lithic collection trips to Davidson's Cove, a quarry site across Scots Bay. Evidence of previously unknown species to the Clam Cove site, including beech (Fagus grandifolia), poplar (Populus sp.), strawberries (Fragaria sp.) and blueberries (Vaccinium sp.) have been recovered through flotation and charcoal analysis. This information will be compared to habitation sites in the area to gain insight into the movement of people during the Late Woodland.
Mid-Holocene Human Burial from Kitchenuhmaykoosib Inninuwug, Big Trout Lake, Northern Ontario, Toronto, 2006
– Scott Hamilton, and Eldon Molto
Recent mechanized gravel removal along the shores of Big Trout Lake revealed human skeletal remains that were subsequently discovered and completely excavated by a local resident. In light of past discoveries of burials in similar shoreline contexts nearby, the Chief and Council at Kitchenuhmaykoosib Inninuwug sought analysis and dating to aid in interpretation. They loaned the material to the Lakehead University Department of Anthropology for dating and analysis prior to reburial. A small collection of stone artifacts recovered from the nearby beach was also loaned for analysis. Radiocarbon dating of the remains indicates an antiquity of 4450 ± 50 (TO-11878). With the nearby burials from Wapekeka First Nation dating to about 7,000 years ago, these remains are among the oldest yet discovered in Ontario, and attest to the comparatively early occupation of the taiga region. Ongoing biological analysis is addressing the physical condition and health profile of this adult male individual.
In the Land of the Fire-Cracked Rock: Archaeology of a Canoe Culture in Pitt Meadows, British Columbia, Toronto, 2006
– Joanne E. Hammond
The customary use of canoes by prehistoric groups can have a pronounced effect on the local and regional archaeological record. Regular manufacture and use of canoes affects not only the kind and distribution of material culture, but is also suspected to have had a profound influence on individual, local and regional economic interactions, social relations and worldview. These effects have important implications for our approaches to seemingly inaccessible landscapes, and might challenge some of our assumptions regarding mobility, site location and classification, organization of labour, and concepts economic risk management. The social significance of canoes is explored through cross-cultural examples, specifically addressing the complex social phenomena that stem from expanded interaction spheres and changes in relative wealth. A general model of canoe-dependent cultures is proposed, presented as a suite of traits that have the potential to affect the archaeological record. This canoe-culture hypothesis is applied to Pitt Meadows, B.C., a unique alluvial environment in Coast Salish territory on the lower Fraser River.
Ancient Maya Settlement and Population History at Pacbitun, Belize, Toronto, 2006
– Paul F. Healy, Jaime J. Awe, and Christophe Helmke
Survey and excavations of visible, mounded structures on the outskirts of the site of Pacbitun, in western Belize, provide insights to the ancient Maya settlement pattern and paleodemography at this medium-sized regional centre. The settlement research employed two methodologies: four radiating 1000 m transect surveys, and a 100 percent areal pedestrian survey of intervening areas. Excavation of a 22 percent sample of all identified mounded structures provides chronological and functional information. Initial settlement occurred in the one square kilometre Core Zone of Pacbitun during the Middle Preclassic period (900-300 BC), with a population rise until the Late Classic period (AD 700-900), when density reached a peak of over 700 persons per square kilometre. The possible impact of topography, soils, water resources, and intensive agriculture (hillside terracing) on settlement size and distribution at Pacbitun is examined. At the time of fluorescence, the population of the nine square kilometre site (Core and Periphery Zones) is estimated to have been about 6000-7000 persons. The zenith population estimate is compared to that of several coeval lowland Maya centres.
Feast on the Dead, Toronto, 2006
– Michael Henry
This paper presents the preliminary results of research toward a much larger research work. The information is offered in the hope of deriving suggestions, ideas and comments to guide further work. Throughout the 19th Century there was an extensive trade in bone as a raw material to support a wide array of industries. The bone and cutlery industries are generally well known but these represent some of the smallest users of bone. The bone trade was dominated by the fertilizer, sugar and steel industries. The demand for bone by these industries was so great that the prairies of North America were largely stripped of bone material over the course of three decades coincident with the construction of the transcontinental railways of the United States and Canada. However, the enormous demand for bone neither began nor ended with this orgy of consumption. To answer the demand for bone, garbage dumps, cemeteries, battlefields, fossil deposits and archaeological sites were pillaged on a global scale. The history of the industry will be outlined together with examples of resource locations exploited. The implications of this industry to archaeology will be discussed.
Faunal Report on The Pas, Toronto, 2006
– Tara Hnatiuk
Were the inhabitants cooking for small family units or were they cooking for a large feast? Much information can be learnt from the accurately recording of faunal material besides substance and seasonality. For instance study of the butchery; burning and disposal patterns of a site can reveal information on site usage and have implications for social/economical development of the culture under study. Thus the information revealed from the faunal record can be invaluable to interpretation of the site. This paper will focus on the presentation of The Pas faunal material and what information has been learnt in regards to substance, butchery and cooking patterns of the culture or cultures that used this site.
New Insight into the Pre-Dorset Occupation of Southwestern Hudson Bay, Toronto, 2006
– Lisa HODGETTS
In the summer of 2005, excavations at two sites on the Churchill West Peninsula revealed different aspects of Pre-Dorset occupation in the region. One site, IeKn-12, bore many similarities to the well-known Seahorse Gully site excavated by Nash and Meyer in the late 1960's and 1970's. Though limited excavations revealed only a single feature at IeKn-12, the range of lithic raw materials, tool types, manufacturing techniques and faunal remains showed strong parallels to those at Seahorse Gully. Excavations at IeKn-77 produced a very different picture. While a hearth feature and tool frequencies were similar to those at Seahorse Gully, the occupants of IeKn-77 utilized distinct lithic raw materials and manufacturing techniques. These data indicate functional similarities between the three sites, but suggest that the occupants of IeKn-77 were part of a distinct social network.
Responding to Change: Ontario's Archaeology Customer Service Project, Toronto, 2006
– Jane Holland, and Neal Ferris
In Ontario, the rapid growth of land-use development and the consultant archaeology industry over the 1990s has been phenomenal. But within the Ontario Ministry of Culture, this growth put increasing stress on program capacity, resulting in complaints about process and service. The legal basis for the ministry's archaeology program, the Ontario Heritage Act, was drafted in 1975 and did not envision the evolution of consultant archaeology. In 2000 the ministry initiated the Archaeology Customer Service Project, a comprehensive review of its archaeology processes, in response to these new realities. Its objectives include recognizing provincial responsibility for protection and preservation of Ontario's heritage, balanced with improving ministry services by making archaeological programs more efficient, effective and transparent. While many areas for improvement were identified, the project has focussed on two: archaeological licensing and the standards and guidelines for conducting and reporting on fieldwork. To date the project has resulted in major legislative, policy and process changes, highlights of which will be discussed in the presentation.
Faunal Variability and House Use at a Late Dorset House Structure, Victoria Island, Nunavut., Toronto, 2006
– Lesley Howse
Addressing faunal variability within Dorset house structures is not commonly practiced. Zooarchaeological investigations tend to aggregate bone material from within houses, or focus on midden assemblages versus house floors. This is often an attempt to control for biases that may be introduced into an assemblage from house maintenance activities and taphonomy. This paper addresses faunal variability within a Late Dorset house structure at the Bell site, Victoria Island, Nunavut, in order to better understand how this house was used and to reconstruct an accurate picture of the site's economy. To highlight post-depositional processes and isolate patterns that may reflect primary activities taxonomic and modification frequencies of faunal assemblages have been predicted. This was based on the expected function of different areas in the house. Results of this analysis suggest that faunal material collected from any context within a Dorset house or midden provides a representative sample of a site's economy.